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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


acephalorrhachia
Congenital absence of head and vertebral column. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kephale, head, + rhachis, spine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalostomia
Congenital absence of the greater part of the head with, however, the presence of a mouthlike opening. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kephale, head, + stoma, mouth ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalothoracia
Congenital absence of head and thorax. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kephale, head, + thorax, chest ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalous
1. Headless. ... 2. <marine biology> Without a distinct head; a term applied to bivalve mollusks. ... 3. <botany> Having the style spring from the base, instead of from the apex, as is the case in certain ovaries. ... 4. Without a leader or chief. ... 5. Wanting the beginning. 'A false or acephalous structure of sentence.' (De Quincey) ... 6 …

acephalus
A headless foetus. ... Synonym: acephalous. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kephale, head ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus acormus
Condition in which a head without a body is attached to the placenta by an umbilical cord. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus dibrachius
A foetus lacking a head but having two recognizably developed upper limbs. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus dipus
A foetus lacking a head but showing two recognizably developed lower limbs. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus monobrachius
A foetus lacking a head and showing only one recognizable upper limb. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus monopus
A foetus lacking a head and with fusion of the lower extremities so extreme that only a single foot is recognizable. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus paracephalus
A malformed foetus with only partially developed skull and little or no brain. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephalus sympus
An acephalus showing fusion of all of the lower limbs. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acephaly
Congenital absence of the head. ... Synonym: acephalia, acephalism. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kephale, head ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acepromazine
<chemical> A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of psychoses. ... Pharmacological action: antipsychotic agents, phenothiazine, dopamine antagonists. ... Chemical name: Ethanone, 1-(10-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acerola
Fruit of a bushy tree that grows in Central and South America and Puerto Rico. The berry is the richest known source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acerous
1. <marine biology> Destitute of tentacles, as certain mollusks. ... 2. <zoology> Without antennae, as some insects. ... (19 Mar 1998) ...

acervuline
Occurring in clusters, aggregated. ... Origin: Mod. L. Acervulus, a little heap ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acervulus
<microbiology> A flat, often round mass of hyphae which carry spore-bearing parts called conidophores, acervuli are found in fungi belonging to the order Melanconiales. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acestoma
Exuberant granulations that form a cicatrix. ... Origin: G. Akestos, curable, + -oma, tumour ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acesulfame
A synthetic, noncaloric sweetener similar to saccharin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acesulphame
<pharmacology> A class of artificial sweeteners derived from oxathiazinone, some varieties are over a hundred times sweeter than table sucrose). ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetabula
Plural of acetabulum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular
Relating to the acetabulum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular artery
Synonym for acetabular branch ... An arterial branch that supplies the acetabulum; two arteries, the obturator and the medial femoral circumflex, have such branches. ... Synonym: ramus acetabularis, acetabular artery, arteria acetabuli. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular branch
An arterial branch that supplies the acetabulum; two arteries, the obturator and the medial femoral circumflex, have such branches. ... Synonym: ramus acetabularis, acetabular artery, arteria acetabuli. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular fossa
A depressed area in the floor of the acetabulum superior to the acetabular notch. ... Synonym: fossa acetabuli. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular labrum
A fibrocartilaginous rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum of the hip bone. ... Synonym: labrum acetabulare, acetabular lip, circumferential cartilage, cotyloid ligament, ligamentum cotyloideum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular lip
Synonym for acetabular labrum ... A fibrocartilaginous rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum of the hip bone. ... Synonym: labrum acetabulare, acetabular lip, circumferential cartilage, cotyloid ligament, ligamentum cotyloideum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabular notch
A gap in the inferior the margin of the acetabulum. ... Synonym: incisura acetabuli, cotyloid notch. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabularia
A genus of green algae found in the mediterranean and other warm seas. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetabulectomy
<procedure> Excision of the acetabulum. ... Origin: acetabulum + G. Ektome, excision ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabuloplasty
Any operation aimed at restoring the acetabulum to as near a normal state as possible. ... Origin: acetabulum + G. Plastos, formed ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetabulum
<anatomy> The hollow, cuplike portion of the pelvis into which the head of the thigh bone (femur) fits. ... <zoology> Also, in entomology, the leg socket on an insect's abdomen or thorax. ... (12 Mar 1998) ...

acetaldehyde
<chemical> A colourless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis. ... Chemical name: Acetaldehyde ... (12 Dec 199 …

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
<enzyme> Works with both nad and nadp ... Registry number: EC 1.2.1.5 ... Synonym: aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+), naho gene product ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetaldehyde oxidase
<enzyme> Acetaldehyde is converted to acetate ... Registry number: EC 1.2.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetamide
<chemistry> A white crystalline solid, from ammonia by replacement of an equivalent of hydrogen by acetyl. It is used as a solvent and acts as a mild irritant. ... (25 Jun 1999) ...

acetaminophen
<drug> The generic name for a common nonprescription medication useful in the treatment of mild pain or fever. This is called paracetamol in the UK. ... [American term] ... Synonym: paracetamol. ... (25 Jun 1999) ...

acetaminophen deacetylase
<enzyme> Forms p-aminophenol ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.- ... Synonym: apap deacetylase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetaminosalol
Salicylic acid ester of acetyl-p-aminophenol;used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and intestinal antiseptic. ... Synonym: phenetsal. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetanilid
C6H5NHCOCH3; N-Phenylacetamide;an analgesic and antipyretic; continued use causes cyanosis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetanilide
<medicine> A compound of aniline with acetyl, N-phenylacetamide. ... Used as a precursor of many drugs, dyes and other compounds in chemical synthesis; formerly used as analgesic and antipyretic, but often causes lethal methemoglobinaemia. ... Synonym: acetylaniline, acetylaminobenzene, antifebrine. ... (25 Jun 1999) ...

acetanilide esterase
<enzyme> Forms aniline ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetarsol
Synonym for acetarsone ... <chemical> An arsenic-containing compound administered to treat infections of the parasite protozoan Entamoeba histolytica in the intestine or genitourinary tract. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetarsone
<chemical> An arsenic-containing compound administered to treat infections of the parasite protozoan Entamoeba histolytica in the intestine or genitourinary tract. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetate
<biochemistry> A salt or ester of acetic acid, specifically, a synthetic textile fibre made from partially hydrolysed cellulose acetate, or a plastic-like film made from cellulose triacetate. ... The terminal hydrogen atom in the molecule is replaced by a metal, for instance copper acetate, or where substitution is by a radical, for instance e …

acetate kinase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. ... Chemical name: ATP:acetate phosphotransferase ... Registry number: EC 2.7.2.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetate replacement factor
Synonym for lipoic acid ... <biochemistry> 1,2 dithiolane 3 valeric acid. Regarded as a coenzyme in the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex of the citric acid cycle. Involved generally in oxidative decarboxylations of _ keto acids. A growth factor for some organisms. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

acetate thiokinase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA ligase ... A ligase that catalyses the reaction of acetate and CoA and ATP to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl-CoA. A key step in the activation of acetate. ... Synonym: acetate thiokinase, acetate-CoA ligase, acetyl-activating enzyme, acetyl-CoA synthetase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetate-CoA ligase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. ... Chemical name: Acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming) ... Registry number: EC 6.2.1.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetate-succinate CoA-transferase
<enzyme> Tritichomonas and trichomonas enzyme converts acetyl-CoA and succinate to acetate and succinyl-CoA ... Registry number: EC 2.8.3.- ... Synonym: acetate-succinate coenzyme a-transferase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetazolamide
<chemical> A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient …

acetenyl
Synonym for ethynyl ... The monovalent radical HC&equiv;C-. ... Synonym: acetenyl, ethinyl. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetic acid
<chemical> The acid most commonly associated with vinegar, it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and Acetobacter but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. ... Derivatives of acetic acid which may be formed by substitut …

acetic aldehyde
Synonym for acetaldehyde ... <chemical> A colourless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis. ... Chemical name: …

acetic amide
Synonym for acetamide ... <chemistry> A white crystalline solid, from ammonia by replacement of an equivalent of hydrogen by acetyl. It is used as a solvent and acts as a mild irritant. ... (25 Jun 1999) ...

acetic anhydride
<chemistry> Anhydrides of acetic acid. Used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetic fermentation
<biochemistry> A type of fermentation conducted by certain microbes in which organic materials are broken down into acetic acid to generate ATP for energy. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetic phosphoric anhydride
Synonym for acetyl phosphate ... CH3CO-OPO32-;a 'high energy' phosphate that acts as an acetate donor in the metabolism of various bacteria. ... Synonym: acetic phosphoric anhydride. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetic solution
A vinegar. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aceticoceptor
A side chain of molecules with a special affinity for the acetic acid radical. ... Origin: L. Acetum, vinegar, + capio, to take ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetin
<chemical> A thick, colourless, water-attracting liquid which is used as a food additive and dye solvent and in explosives manufacture and leather tanning. It is created by heating and then distilling a mixture of acetic acid and glycerol. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

aceto-
Combining forms denoting the two-carbon fragment of acetic acid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aceto-orcein stain
<technique> A stain used for chromosomes in air-dried or squashed cytologic material. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetate
A salt or ion of acetoacetic acid. A ketone body formed in ketogenesis. ... Synonym: diacetate. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase, a carboxy-lyase cleaving CO2 from acetoacetate to form acetone. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetic acid
CH3COCH2COOH;one of the ketone bodies, formed in excess and appearing in the urine in starvation or diabetes. ... Synonym: diacetic acid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetyl-CoA
Intermediate in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the formation of ketone bodies; also formed from two molecules of acetyl-CoA; major role is condensation with acetyl-CoA to form the important beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA. ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetyl-CoA reductase
An oxidoreductase catalyzing interconversion of a 3-oxoacyl-CoA and NADPH, and the corresponding d-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, and NADP+. A step in fatty acid synthesis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase
<enzyme> Catalyses the conversion of acetoacetate and CoA in the presence of ATP to yield AMP, pyrophosphate and acetoacetyl-CoA; the latter is the first intermediate in cholesterogenesis; also acts more slowly on l-3-hydroxybutanoate ... Registry number: EC 6.2.1.16 ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-CoA ligase, acetoacetate-CoA ligase, acetoacetyl-coen …

acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase ... An acetyltransferase forming acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA, releasing one CoA. A key step in ketogenesis and sterol synthesis. ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA thiolase, thiolase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetyl-coenzyme A
Synonym for acetoacetyl-CoA ... Intermediate in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the formation of ketone bodies; also formed from two molecules of acetyl-CoA; major role is condensation with acetyl-CoA to form the important beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA. ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoacetyl-succinic thiophorase
Synonym for 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase ... <enzyme> An enzyme catalyzing the reversible conversion of acetoacetyl-CoA and succinate into succinyl-CoA and acetoacetate; malonyl-CoA can substitute for succinyl-CoA and a few other 3-oxo acids for the acetoacetate; an important step in order for the ketone bodies to serve as a fuel for extrahepatic …

Acetobacter
<bacteria> Acetobacter is a genus of rod-shaped, flagellated or nonmotile bacteria that oxidize ethanol to acetic acid. ... These bacteria are commonly found on fruits and vegetables and although they are used commercially to produce vinegar (especially Acetobacter aceti), they are considered pests by brewers and vintners. ... Origin: L. Acetum …

acetobacteraceae
<microbiology> A family of gram-negative bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetoclastic bacteria
<microbiology> Bacteria that use only acetic acid and produce methane during anaerobic fermentation. ... Origin: L. Acetum = vinegar. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetoclastis
<biochemistry> The process of splitting acetate into methane and carbon dioxide by some methanogens. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetogenic bacteria
<microbiology> Bacteria that convert carbon dioxide to sugars into acetate. ... Origin: L. Acetum = vinegar. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetohexamide
<drug> A drug taken to lower the level of glucose in the blood. Only some people with non insulin-dependent diabetes take these pills. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetohexamide reductase
<enzyme> Catalyses the conversion of acetohexamide to (-)-hydroxyhexamide ... Registry number: EC 1.1.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetohydroxamic acid
C2H5NO2; N-Hydroxyacetamide;an inhibitor of urease, used as adjunctive therapy in chronic urea-splitting urinary infections. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoin
<chemical> 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidised to carbon dioxide. ... Chemical name: 2-Butanone, 3-hydroxy- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetoin dehydrogenase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD. ... Chemical name: Acetoin:NAD+ oxidoreductase ... Registry number: EC 1.1.1.5 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetokinase
Synonym for acetate kinase ... <enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. ... Chemical name: ATP:acetate phosphotransferase ... Registry number: EC 2.7.2.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetol
An obsolete term for 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, or hydroxyacetone, CH2OH-CO-CH3; also used as a proprietary name for certain commercial items. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetol dehydrogenase
<enzyme> Forms methylglyoxal; uses nad+ ... Registry number: EC 1.1.1.- ... Synonym: 1-hydroxyacetone dehydrogenase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetolactate synthase
<enzyme> A flavoprotein that catalyses the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of pyruvate in the biosynthesis of valine and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. ... Chemical name: Acetolactate pyruvate-lyase (carboxylating) ... Registry number: EC 4.1.3.18 ... (12 Dec 1 …

acetolysis
Decomposition of an organic compound with the addition of the elements of acetic acid at the point of decomposition; analogous to hydrolysis and phosphorolysis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetomenaphthone
Synonym for menadiol diacetate ... 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone diacetate;menadiol acetylated at both OH groups; a prothrombogenic vitamin. ... Synonym: acetomenaphthone, vitamin K4. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetonaemia
<biochemistry> The condition in which acetone bodies are present in the blood. A condition seen in ketoacidosis (due to alcohol abuse or uncontrolled diabetes). ... Origin: Gr. Haima = blood ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acetonaemic
Relating to or caused by acetonaemia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetone
<chemical> A colourless, flammable liquid which is used as a solvent (it is most familiar as the solvent in nail polish remover). The simplest ketone, it mixes with water, ethyl alcohol, and most oils. ... It melts at -95.4 deg C. And boils at 56.2 deg C. It is naturally found in very tiny quantities in the body fluids and tissues of healthy p …

acetone body
Synonym for ketone body ... <biochemistry> Any of the three compounds created by acetyl coenzyme A (acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) which are water-soluble cellular fuels normally exported by the liver. ... They can build up in the blood and body tissues because of starvation, untreated diabetes mellitus, or other disorders that int …

acetone carboxylase
<enzyme> An ATP-dependent carboxylase ... Registry number: EC 4.1.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetone chloroform
Synonym for chlorobutanol ... <chemical> A colourless to white crystalline compound with a camphoraceous odour and taste. It is a widely used preservative in various pharmaceutical solutions, especially injectables. Also, it is an active ingredient in certain oral sedatives and topical anaesthetics. ... Pharmacological action: preservatives, ph …

acetone compound
Synonym for ketone body ... <biochemistry> Any of the three compounds created by acetyl coenzyme A (acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) which are water-soluble cellular fuels normally exported by the liver. ... They can build up in the blood and body tissues because of starvation, untreated diabetes mellitus, or other disorders that int …

acetone fixative
Acetone used at low temperatures to fix enzymes, particularly phosphatases; it removes fat and glycogen. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetone monooxygenase
<enzyme> Converts acetone to acetol and acetol to methylglyoxal ... Registry number: EC 1.14.13.- ... Synonym: acetol monooxygenase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetone test
A test for ketonuria; the suspected urine is shaken up with a few drops of sodium nitroprusside, and strong ammonia water is then gently poured over the mixture; if acetone is present, a magenta ring forms at the line of contact; tablets containing sodium nitroprusside and alkali are now more commonly used. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetone-butanol fermentation
<biochemistry, microbiology> The formation of acetone and butanol through the fermentation of glucose by Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, most industrial plants make acetone and butanol through synthetic processes that use petrochemicals. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetone-insoluble antigen
Synonym for cardiolipin ... A diphosphatidyl glycerol that is found in the membrane of Treponema pallidum and is the antigen detected by the Wasserman test for syphilis. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...