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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


absorbancy
Synonym for absorbance ... 1. <chemistry, investigation> Absorbance is defined as a logarithmic function of the percent transmission of a wavelength of light through a liquid. ... 2. <microbiology> This can be used as a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a suspension of bacterial cells or a solution of an organic molecule, it is m …

absorbancy index
Synonym for specific absorption coefficient ... Absorbance (of light) per unit path length (usually the centimeter) and per unit of mass concentration. ... Compare: molar absorption coefficient. ... Synonym: absorbancy index, absorptivity, extinction coefficient, specific extinction. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbed dose
The amount of energy absorbed per unit mass of irradiated material at the target site; in radiation therapy, the former unit for absorbed dose is the rad; the current (S.I.) unit is the gray. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbefacient
1. Causing absorption. ... 2. Any substance possessing such quality. ... Origin: L. Ab-sorbeo, to suck in, + facio, to make ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbency
Synonym for absorbance ... 1. <chemistry, investigation> Absorbance is defined as a logarithmic function of the percent transmission of a wavelength of light through a liquid. ... 2. <microbiology> This can be used as a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a suspension of bacterial cells or a solution of an organic molecule, it is m …

absorbent
1. Anything which absorbs. 'The ocean, itself a bad absorbent of heat.' (Darwin) ... 2. <medicine> Any substance which absorbs and neutralizes acid fluid in the stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, etc.; also a substance e. G, iodine) which acts on the absorbent vessels so as to reduce enlarged and indurated parts. ... 3. <physiology> …

absorbent cotton
Cotton from which all fatty matter has been extracted, so that it readily takes up fluids. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbent points
Cones of paper or paper products used for drying or maintaining medicaments during root canal therapy. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbent system
Synonym for lymphatic system ... <anatomy> The tissues and organs (including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes) that produce and store cells that fight infection and the network of vessels that carry lymph. ... (12 May 1997) ...

absorbent vessels
Synonym for lymph vessels ... The vessels that convey the lymph; they anastomose freely with each other. ... Synonym: vasa lymphatica, absorbent vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymphatics. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorber head
Portion of a rebreathing anaesthesia circuit that contains carbon dioxide absorbent; often referred to as a canister. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorptiometry, photon
A noninvasive method for quantitating bone mineral content. It is used especially in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and also in measuring bone mineralization in infants. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

absorption
The process of absorbing, specifically: ... 1. <physiology> The movement and uptake of substances (liquids and solutes) into cells or across tissues such as skin, intestine and kiidney tubules, by way of diffusion or osmosis. ... 2. <chemistry> The drawing of a gas or liquid into the pores of a permeable solid. ... 3. <psychology> Th …

absorption band
The range of wavelengths or frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum where radiant energy is absorbed by passage through a gaseous, liquid, or dissolved substance; it is exploited for analytical purposes in colourimetry or spectrophotometry, and is usually described in terms of the wavelength where maximum absorbance occurs (i.e., lambdamax). …

absorption cell
A small glass chamber with parallel sides, in which absorption spectra of solutions can be obtained. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorption chromatography
Synonym for chromatography ... <investigation> Techniques for separating molecules based on differential absorption and elution. Term for separation methods involving flow of a fluid carrier over a nonmobile absorbing phase. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

absorption coefficient
<physics> Measures the degree of wave absorption defined as the fraction of wave energy lost as the wave travels a unit distance. ... See: absorption. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

absorption collapse
Pulmonary collapse due to rapid complete obstruction of a large bronchus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorption fever
An elevation of temperature often occurring, without other untoward symptoms, shortly after childbirth, assumed to be due to absorption of uterine discharges through abrasions of the vaginal wall. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorption lines
The dark line's in the solar spectrum due to absorption by the solar and the earth's atmosphere; the phenomenon occurs because rays passing from an incandescent body through a colder medium are absorbed by elements in that medium. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorption spectroscopy
<investigation> This is the use of a spectrophotometer to measure the ability of particles (solutes) in a solution to absorb light through a range of specific wavelengths. ... Every compound absorbs light differently, so absorption spectra can be used to identify compounds, measure concentrations, and determine reaction rates. ... (15 Jan 1998) …

absorption spectrum
<chemistry> A graph of the amount of light a substance absorbs, plotted as a fuction of energy, frequency or wavelength. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

absorptive
Synonym for absorbent ... 1. Anything which absorbs. 'The ocean, itself a bad absorbent of heat.' (Darwin) ... 2. <medicine> Any substance which absorbs and neutralizes acid fluid in the stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, etc.; also a substance e. G, iodine) which acts on the absorbent vessels so as to reduce enlarged and indurated parts.< …

absorptive cells of intestine
Cell's on the surface of villi of the small intestine and the luminal surface of the large intestine that are characterised by having microvilli on their free surface. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorptivity
Synonym: specific absorption coefficient, molar absorption coefficient. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abstinence
<psychology> Self-denial, a voluntary refraining from the use of or indulgence in food, stimulants or sexual intercourse. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

abstinence symptoms
Synonym for withdrawal symptoms ... A group of morbid symptom's, predominantly erethistic, occurring in an addict who is deprived of his accustomed dose of the addicting agent. ... Synonym: abstinence symptoms. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abstinence syndrome
<syndrome> A constellation of physiologic changes undergone by persons or animals who have become physically dependent on a drug or chemical due to prolonged use at elevated doses, but who are abruptly deprived of that substance. The abstinence syndrome varies with the drug to which dependence has developed. Generally the effects observed are …

abstract
1. Withdraw; separate. 'The more abstract . . . We are from the body.' (Norris) ... 2. Considered apart from any application to a particular object; separated from matter; exiting in the mind only; as, abstract truth, abstract numbers. Hence: ideal; abstruse; difficult. ... 3. <logic> Expressing a particular property of an object viewed apart f …

abstract intelligence
The capacity to understand and manage abstract ideas and symbols. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abstracting and indexing
Shortening or summarizing of documents; assigning of descriptors for referencing documents. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abstraction
1. The act of abstracting, separating, or withdrawing, or the state of being withdrawn; withdrawal. 'A wrongful abstraction of wealth from certain members of the community.' (J. S. Mill) ... 2. <psychology> The act process of leaving out of consideration one or more properties of a complex object so as to attend to others; analysis. Thus, when …

abstriction
In fungi, the formation of asexual spores by cutting off portions of the sporophore through the growth of dividing partitions. ... Origin: L. Ab-, from, + strictura, a contraction ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absurd
Contrary to reason or propriety; obviously and fiatly opposed to manifest truth; inconsistent with the plain dictates of common sense; logically contradictory; nonsensical; ridiculous; as, an absurd person, an absurd opinion; an absurd dream. 'This proffer is absurd and reasonless.' (Shak) ''This phrase absurd to call a villain great.' (Pope) (p. 9 …

abterminal
In a direction away from the end and toward the centre; denoting the course of an electrical current in a muscle. ... Origin: L. Ab, from, + terminus, end ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abtropfung
A theory that nevus cells are epidermal cells (melanocytes) that proliferate and drop off (migrate) into the dermis. ... Origin: Ger. Abtropfung, trickling down ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abulia
1. Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions or to make decisions. ... 2. Reduction in speech, movement, thought, and emotional reaction; a common result of bilateral frontal lobe disease. ... Synonym: aboulia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + boule, will ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abulic
Relating to, or suffering from, abulia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abundance
An overflowing fullness; ample sufficiency; great plenty; profusion; copious supply; superfluity; wealth: strictly applicable to quantity only, but sometimes used of number. 'It is lamentable to remember what abundance of noble blood hath been shed with small benefit to the Christian state.' (Raleigh) ... Synonym: Exuberance, plenteousness, plenty, …

abundant
Fully sufficient; plentiful; in copious supply; followed by in, rarely by with. 'Abundant in goodness and truth. ... <mathematics> ' Abundant number, a number, the sum of whose aliquot parts exceeds the number itself. Thus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, the aliquot parts of 12, make the number 16. This is opposed to a deficient number, as 14, whose aliquot p …

abuse
1. Improper treatment or use; application to a wrong or bad purpose; misuse; as, an abuse of our natural powers; an abuse of civil rights, or of privileges or advantages; an abuse of language. 'Liberty may be endangered by the abuses of liberty, as well as by the abuses of power.' (Madison) ... 2. Physical ill treatment; injury. 'Rejoice . . . at th …

abutment
<dentistry> The teeth on either side of a missing tooth. ... (08 Jan 1998) ...

ABVD
<abbreviation> A chemotherapy regimen of Adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine; used to treat neoplastic diseases, such as Hodgkin's disease, shown to be resistant to MOPP therapy. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abvolt
The CGS electromagnetic unit of difference of potential equal to 10-8 volt. The potential difference between two points such that 1 erg of work will be done when 1 abcoulomb of charge moves from point to point. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abyss
1. A bottomless or unfathomed depth, gulf, or chasm; hence, any deep, immeasurable, and, specifically, hell, or the bottomless pit. 'Ye powers and spirits of this nethermost abyss.' (Milton) 'The throne is darkness, in the abyss of light.' (Dryden) ... 2. Infinite time; a vast intellectual or moral depth. 'The abysses of metaphysical theology.' (Mac …

abyssal
Belonging to, or resembling, an abyss; unfathomable. ... <physics> Abyssal zone, one of the belts or zones into which Sir E. Forbes divides the bottom of the sea in describing its plants, animals, etc. It is the one furthest from the shore, embracing all beyond one hundred fathoms deep. Hence, abyssal animals, plants, etc. ... Origin: Cf. Abysm …

abzyme
<immunology> An antibody with catalytic activity. ... (06 May 1997) ...

Ac1-proteinase
<enzyme> Proteolylic haemorrhagic toxin for trimeresurus flavoviridis ... Registry number: EC 3.4.99.- ... Synonym: ac1-protease ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

Ac2-proteinase
<enzyme> From agkistrodon acutus venom ... Registry number: EC 3.4.99.- ... Synonym: ac2-protease ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

Ac3-proteinase
<enzyme> Isolated from venom of agkistrodon acutus; mw 57,000 ... Registry number: EC 3.4.99.- ... Synonym: ac3-protease ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

Ac4-proteinase
<enzyme> One of proteinases of venom of agkistrodon acutus and has haemorrhagic activity ... Registry number: EC 3.4.99.- ... Synonym: ac4-protease ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

Ac5-proteinase
<enzyme> Isolated from venom of agkistrodon acutus ... Registry number: EC 3.4.99.- ... Synonym: ac5-protease ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acacia
Origin: L. From Gr.; orig. The name of a thorny tree found in Egypt; prob. Fr. The root ak to be sharp. See Acute. ... 1. A genus of leguminous trees and shrubs. Nearly 300 species are Australian or Polynesian, and have terete or vertically compressed leaf stalks, instead of the bipinnate leaves of the much fewer species of America, Africa, etc. Ver …

academic dissertations
Formal written discourses presented, usually, to fulfill requirements for an academic degree. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

academic medical centres
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

academies and institutes
Organizations representing specialised fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., national academy of sciences, brookings institution, etc. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

academy
Origin: F. Academie, L. Academia. Cf. Academe. ... 1. A garden or grove near Athens (so named from the hero Academus), where Plato and his followers held their philosophical conferences; hence, the school of philosophy of which Plato was head. ... 2. An institution for the study of higher learning; a college or a university. Popularly, a school, or s …

acadian
Of or pertaining to Acadie, or Nova Scotia. 'Acadian farmers.' . ... A native of Acadie. ... <geology> Acadian epoch, an epoch at the beginning of the American paleozoic time, and including the oldest American rocks known to be fossiliferous. See Geology. ... <ornithology> Acadian owl, a small North American owl (Nyctule Acadica); the saw- …

acalculia
A form of aphasia characterised by the inability to perform simple mathematical problems; found with lesions of various areas of the cerebral hemispheres, and often an early sign of dementia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + L. Calculo, to reckon ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acalculous cholecystitis
<radiology> 5-10% of acute cholecystitis aetiology: depressed motility and starvation: trauma, burns, surgery, TPN, anaesthesia, narcotics, decreased blood flow through cystic artery: congestive heart failure, arteriosclerosis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, shock, obstruction of cystic duct by extrinsic inflamm …

acampsia
<rheumatology> Stiffening or rigidity of a joint for any reason. ... (06 Oct 1997) ...

acanthamoeba
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthamoeba keratitis
Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthamoebiasis
Infection by free-living soil amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba that may result in a necrotizing dermal or tissue invasion, or a fulminating and usually fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthella
An intermediate larva stage of Acanthocephala, formed within the arthropod host; a preinfective, nonencysted stage leading to the infective cystacanth. ... Origin: G. Akantha, thorn, spine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthesthesia
Paresthesia of a pinprick. ... Origin: G. Akantha, thorn, + aisthesis, sensation ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acanthia lectularia
Early name for Cimex lectularius. ... Origin: G. Akantha, thorn, prickle; L. Lectus, a bed ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthion
The tip of the anterior nasal spine. ... Synonym: akanthion. ... Origin: G. Akantha, thorn ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acantho-
A spinous process; spiny, thorny. ... Origin: G. Akantha, a thorn, the backbone, the spine, fr. Ake, a point, + anthos, a flower ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthocephaliasis
An illness caused by infection with a species of Acanthocephala. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acanthocheilonema
A genus of filarial worms parasitic in man, now considered part of the genus Mansonella. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. Cheilos, lip, + nema, thread ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthocyte
An erythrocyte characterised by multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections, as in acanthocytosis. ... Synonym: acanthrocyte. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. Kytos, cell ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthocytes
Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthocytosis
<haematology> A rare condition where the majority of red blood cells are acanthocytes (red blood cells with multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections), a feature of abetalipoproteinaemia. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acanthocytosis with chorea
Synonym for chorea-acanthocytosis ... A slowly progressive familial chorea with associated mental deterioration, diminished deep tendon reflexes, bilateral atrophy of the putamen and caudate nuclei and acanthocytosis (thorny appearance of blood erythrocytes); the disorder typically begins around late adolescence; inheritance is usually autosomal rec …

acanthoid
Spine-shaped. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acantholysis
Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris and keratosis follicularis. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthoma
<tumour> A tumour formed by proliferation of epithelial squamous cells. ... See: keratoacanthoma. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. -oma, tumour ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthoma adenoides cysticum
Synonym for trichoepithelioma ... <tumour> Multiple small benign nodules, occurring mostly on the skin of the face, derived from basal cells of hair follicles enclosing small keratin cysts; frequent autosomal dominant inheritance. ... Synonym: acanthoma adenoides cysticum, Brooke's tumour, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, hereditary multiple tri …

acanthoma fissuratum
A fissure bordered by acanthosis developing at a site of friction by spectacle frames, usually behind the ears. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthopodia
Toothlike pseudopodia observed in some amoebae, typically in members of the genus Acanthamoeba. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. Pous, podos, foot ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthopodina
A suborder of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include subpseudopodia that are more or less finely tipped, occasionally filiform, commonly furcate hyaline, and produced from a broad hyaline lobe. Cysts are usually formed and nuclear division is mesomitotic or metamitotic. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthor
The spindle-shaped embryo, with rostellar hooks and body spines, formed within the egg shell of Acanthocephala; this stage burrows into the body cavity of its first intermediate host, usually a crustacean in aquatic cycles, or insects in terrestrial cycles. ... Origin: G. Akantha, thorn or spine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthorrhexis
Rupture of the intercellular bridges of the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, as in contact-type dermatitis. ... See: spongiosis. ... Origin: acantho + G. Rhexis, rupture ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthosis
An increase in the thickness of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis. ... Synonym: hyperacanthosis. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. -osis, condition ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthosis nigricans
<radiology> Pre-malignant skin disorder, papillomatosis, pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, multiple filling defects in oesophagus, increased risk of carcinoma in stomach and abdomen ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acanthotic
Pertaining to or characteristic of acanthosis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthrocyte
Synonym for acanthocyte ... An erythrocyte characterised by multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections, as in acanthocytosis. ... Synonym: acanthrocyte. ... Origin: acantho-+ G. Kytos, cell ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acanthrocytosis
Synonym for acanthocytosis ... <haematology> A rare condition where the majority of red blood cells are acanthocytes (red blood cells with multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections), a feature of abetalipoproteinaemia. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acapnia
Less than the normal level of carbon dioxide in the blood. The opposite of hypercapnia. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acapnial alkalosis
Synonym for respiratory alkalosis ... The alkalosis resulting from abnormal loss of CO2 produced by hyperventilation, either active or passive, with concomitant reduction in arterial plasma bicarbonate concentration. ... See: compensated alkalosis. ... Synonym: acapnial alkalosis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acarbia
An obsolete term denoting pronounced reduction in bicarbonate of the blood (hypocarbia). ... Origin: G. A-priv. + carbon ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acarbose 7-phosphotransferase
<enzyme> Catalyses reaction between ATP and acarbose to form acarbose 7-phosphate; isolated from actinoplanes; n-terminal amino acid sequence given in first source ... Registry number: EC 2.7.1.- ... Synonym: acarbose kinase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acardia
Congenital absence of the heart; a condition sometimes occurring in monozygotic twins or in the smaller, parasitic member of conjoined twins when its partner monopolises the placental blood supply. Acardia can also occur in triplet pregnancies. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kardia, heart ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acardiotrophia
An obsolete term for atrophy of the myocardium. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kardia, heart, + trophe, nourishment ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acardius
A twin without a heart, parasitic on, or utilizing the placental circulation of, its mate. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acardius acephalus
Acephalocardius;an acardiac foetus in which the head and thoracic organs are absent. Ribs and vertebrae may be present, and upper limbs are either absent or defective. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acardius amorphus
A shapeless mass covered by skin and hair. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acardius anceps
An acardiac foetus with partly developed head and deformed face, trunk, and limbs. ... See: hemiacardius. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acari
A large, cosmopolitan order of arachnids comprising the mites and ticks, including parasites of plants, animals, and man, as well as several important disease vectors. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...