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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


abortion, eugenic
Abortion performed because of possible foetal defects. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, habitual
The miscarriage of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies. Recurrent abortion can be identically defined as 3 or more miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) with no intervening pregnancies. Habitual or recurrent abortion is a form of infertility. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, incomplete
Abortion in which not all the products of conception have been expelled. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, induced
Intentional removal of a foetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (popline, 1978) ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, legal
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, missed
The retention in the uterus of a dead foetus two months or more after its death. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, multiple
Couples who have had 2 or more miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) have about a 5% chance that one member of the couple is carrying a chromsome translocation responsible for the miscarriages. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, recurrent
See Abortion, habitual. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, septic
Infected abortion in which there is dissemination of microorganisms and their products into the maternal systemic circulation. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, therapeutic
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, threatened
Condition of vaginal bleeding with or without pain in early pregnancy which may presage an abortion. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion, veterinary
Premature expulsion of the foetus in animals. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortionist
One who interrupts a pregnancy. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abortive
1. Produced by abortion; born prematurely; as, an abortive child. ... 2. Made from the skin of a still-born animal; as, abortive vellum. ... 3. Rendering fruitless or ineffectual. 'Plunged in that abortive gulf.' ... 4. Coming to naught; failing in its effect; miscarrying; fruitless; unsuccessful; as, an abortive attempt. 'An abortive enterprise.' ... …

abortive neurofibromatosis
incomplete neurofibromatosis ...

abortive transduction
Transduction in which the genetic fragment from the donor bacterium is not integrated in the genome of the recipient bacterium, and, when the latter divides, is transmitted to only one of the daughter cells. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abortus
Any product (or all products) of an abortion. ... Origin: L. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aboulia
Synonym for abulia ... 1. Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions or to make decisions. ... 2. Reduction in speech, movement, thought, and emotional reaction; a common result of bilateral frontal lobe disease. ... Synonym: aboulia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + boule, will ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABP
<abbreviation> Androgen binding protein. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABPA
<abbreviation> Allergic bronchopulmonry aspergillosis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABR
<abbreviation> Auditory brainstem response. ... See: auditory brainstem response audiometry. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrachia
Congenital absence of arms. ... See: amelia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + brachion, arm ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrachiocephalia
Synonym for abrachiocephaly ... Congenital absence of arms and head. ... Synonym: acephalobrachia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + brachion, arm, + kephale, head ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrachiocephaly
Congenital absence of arms and head. ... Synonym: acephalobrachia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + brachion, arm, + kephale, head ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrade
1. To wear away by mechanical action. ... 2. To scrape away the surface layer from a part. ... Origin: L. Ab-rado, pp. -rasus, to scrape off ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abraded wound
Synonym for abrasion ... 1. <pathology> The wearing away of a substance or structure (such as the skin or the teeth) through some unusual or abnormal mechanical process. ... 2. <clinical sign> A superficial injury to the skin or other body tissue caused by rubbing or scraping resulting in an area of body surface denuded of skin or mucous …

Abrahams, Robert
<person> U.S. Physician, 1861-1935. ... See: Abrahams' sign. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abrahams' sign
<clinical sign> An obsolete sign: ... Rales and other adventitious sounds, changes in the respiratory murmurs, and increase in the whispered sound can be heard on auscultation over the acromial end of the clavicle some time before they become audible at the apex; heard primarily in pulmonary tuberculosis affecting the apical portion of the lun …

Abrams, Albert
<person> U.S. Physician, 1863-1924. ... See: Abrams' heart reflex. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abrams' heart reflex
A contraction of the myocardium when the skin of the precordial region is irritated. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrasion
1. <pathology> The wearing away of a substance or structure (such as the skin or the teeth) through some unusual or abnormal mechanical process. ... 2. <clinical sign> A superficial injury to the skin or other body tissue caused by rubbing or scraping resulting in an area of body surface denuded of skin or mucous membrane. ... (11 Nov 199 …

abrasive
1. Causing abrasion. ... 2. Any material used to produce abrasions. ... 3. A substance used in dentistry for abrading, grinding, or polishing. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrasive media
<microscopy> Extremely hard materials (Diamond, SiC, Al2O3 etc.), usually in a very fine particulate form (less than 15 micrometres), used in the initial stages of specimen preparation to grind and polish samples to the desired thickness or finish. ... (05 Aug 1998) ...

abrasive strip
A ribbon-like piece of linen on one side of which is bonded abrasive particles; used in dentistry for contouring and polishing proximal surfaces of restorations. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abrasiveness
1. That property of a substance which causes surface wear by friction. ... 2. The quality of being able to scratch or wear away another material. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abreact
1. To show strong emotion while reliving a previous traumatic experience. ... 2. To discharge or release repressed emotion. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abreaction
A process in psychotherapy in which the patient is 'desensitised' to emotionally painful, often forgotten (repressed) memories by recalling and reacting to them in the 'safety' of the treatment setting. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abrin
<pharmacology> A highly poisonous protein found in the seeds of Abrus precatorius, the rosary pea. Abrin is toxic because it inhibits protein synthesis, causing symptoms such as internal bleeding, intestinal upset and the irritation of mucous membranes. It was formerly used to treat some chronic eye disorders and it is currently being researc …

abroad
1. at large; widely; broadly; over a wide space; as, a tree spreads its branches abroad. 'The fox roams far abroad.' (Prior) ... 2. Without a certain confine; outside the house; away from one's abode; as, to walk abroad. 'I went to St. James', where another was preaching in the court abroad.' (Evelyn) ... 3. Beyond the bounds of a country; in foreign …

abrupt
Sudden and unexpected. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

abrupt cessation
<pharmacology> Refers to after suddenly stopping the medication. ... (06 Oct 1997) ...

abruptio placentae
<obstetrics> This is the premature separation of the placenta, i.e. Separation of the placenta from the site of implantation on the uterus before the delivery of the foetus. It is a life threatening condition for the foetus and occurs about 1 in 500 to 750 deliveries. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abruption
A tearing away, separation, or detachment. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abrus
A genus of leguminous plants. The root of Abrus precatorius, Indian liquorice, is sometimes used as a substitute for liquorice; the seeds are toxic and may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsions, and death if chewed. ... Origin: more correctly Habrus, from G. Habros, graceful ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abscess
<microbiology, surgery> A localised collection of pus caused by suppuration buried in tissues, organs or confined spaces. Usually due to an infective process. ... Origin: L. Abscessus, from ab = away, cedere = to go ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

abscess scan
<investigation> This is a nuclear scan that utilises radioactively tagged white blood cells. ... The patients white blood cells (taken from a small tube of blood) are tagged with radioactive indium. Later, the cells are then reinjected into the bloodstream. The coarse of the white blood cells can then be mapped using a gamma camera (radiation …

abscess, peritonsillar
A persistent collection of pus behind the tonsil. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abscess, skin
Medical term for a common boil. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abscisic acid
<biochemistry> A lipid hormone that inhibits cell growth in plants, it is associated with fruit drop, leaf death and seed dormancy. It is synthesised in the plastids from carotenoids. This hormone helps plants deal with water loss, and its effects can be reversed with gibberellins. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase
<enzyme> Catalyses conversion of abscisic acid to 8'-hydroxyabscisic acid, which rearranges to phaseic acid ... Registry number: EC 1.14.99.- ... Synonym: aba 8'-hydroxylase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

abscissa
<geometry> One of the elements of reference by which a point, as of a curve, is referred to a system of fixed rectilineal coordinate axes. ... When referred to two intersecting axes, one of them called the axis of abscissas, or of X, and the other the axis of ordinates, or of Y, the abscissa of the point is the distance cut off from the axis o …

abscission
<botany> The normal shedding from a plant of an organ that is mature or aged, for example a ripe fruit, an old leaf. Adj. Abscissile. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abscission cellulase
<enzyme> High sequence conservation between bean and soybean abscission cellulase (bac and sac respectively); nucleotide sequence given in first source ... Registry number: EC 3.2.1.- ... Synonym: bac gene product, bean, sac gene product, soybean ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

absconsio
A recess, cavity, or depression; used especially in osteology to denote a bony cavity which accommodates the head of another bone. ... Origin: Mod. L. Fr. Abs-condo, pp. -conditus or -consus, to hide ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abscopal
Denoting the effect that irradiation of a tissue has on remote nonirradiated tissue. ... Origin: ab-+ G.skopos, target, + -al ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abscopal effect
A reaction produced following irradiation but occurring outside the zone of actual radiation absorption. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absence
Paroxysmal attacks of impaired consciousness, occasionally accompanied by spasm or twitching of cephalic muscles, which usually can be brought on by hyperventilation; depending on the type and severity of the absence, the EEG may show an abrupt onset of a 3/sec spike and wave pattern as in simple absence, or in atypical cases, a 4/sec spike and wav …

absence seizure
<neurology> A type of seizure that in contrast to the grand mal seizure, are noted for their brevity and for the degree of loss of awareness (brief staring spell) accompanied by minimal motor manifestations. A common form of childhood epilepsy. ... (06 Oct 1997) ...

absent
1. Being away from a place; withdrawn from a place; not present. 'Expecting absent friends.' ... 2. Not existing; lacking; as, the part was rudimental or absent. ... 3. Inattentive to what is passing; absent-minded; preoccupied; as, an absent air. 'What is commonly called an absent man is commonly either a very weak or a very affected man.' (Chesterf …

absent distal clavicle
<radiology> Cleidocranial dysostosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperparathyroidism ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

absent nasal septum
<radiology> Cocaine, Wegener's (midline lethal granuloma), surgery, trauma, syphilis, sarcoid ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

absent state
Synonym for dreamy state ... The semiconscious state associated with an epileptic attack. ... Synonym: absent state. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absenteeism
Chronic absence from work or other duty. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

Absidia
A genus of fungi (family Mucoraceae) commonly found in nature. Thermophilic species survive in compost piles at temperatures exceeding 45°C and may cause zygomycosis in humans. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absinthism
<psychiatry> A nervous and mental disorder resulting from the excessive use of the liqueur, absinthe. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

absinthol
Synonym for thujone ... C10H16O;the chief constituent of cedar leaf oil; a stimulant similar to camphor. ... Synonym: absinthol, tanacetol, tanacetone, thujol, thuyol, thuyone. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute
1. Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command; absolute power; an absolute monarch. ... 2. Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless; as, absolute perfection; absolute beauty. 'So absolute she seems, And in herself complete …

absolute agraphia
Agraphia in which not even unconnected letters can be written. ... Synonym: atactic agraphia, literal agraphia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute alcohol
Water having been removed. ... Synonym: anhydrous alcohol. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute CD4 count
The number of helper T-lymphocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood. With HIV, the absolute CD4 count declines as the infection progresses. The absolute CD4 count is frequently used to monitor the extent of immune suppression in persons with HIV. Also called a T4 count. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

absolute configuration
<chemistry> The three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms around the chiral centre of a molecule. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

absolute dehydration
Actual water deficit as measured by a difference from the normal or from a given water content. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute eosinophil count
<haematology, investigation> A measurement (cells per microlitre) of the number of eosinophils in a blood specimen. ... This measurement is useful in the evaluation of autoimmune disease, allergies, eczema, leukaemia, asthma and hay fever. Normal absolute eosinophil counts are less than 350 cells/mcl (microlitre). ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

absolute filter
<apparatus> A fine-pored, steam-sterilisable filter that is used to trap airborne microorganisms. The filter's pores are about 2 micrometres in diameter, smaller than the particles it is designed to remove. ... (06 May 1997) ...

absolute glaucoma
The final stage of blindness in glaucoma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute gravity
<chemistry> The value that denotes the density (specific gravity) at standard conditions (for gases, these conditions are standard atmospheric pressure at zero degrees Celsius). ... (06 May 1997) ...

absolute hemianopia
Hemianopsia in which the affected field is totally insensitive to all visual stimuli. ... Synonym: complete hemianopia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute hyperopia
Manifest hyperopia that cannot be overcome by an effort of accommodation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute instabilities
<physics> A class of plasma instabilities growing exponentially with time at a point in space, in contrast to convective instabilities. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

absolute intensity threshold acuity
The minimal light that can be seen. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute leukocytosis
An actual increase in the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood, as distinguished from a relative increase (such as that observed in dehydration). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute oils
Essential oils that are obtained by the removal of insoluble compounds from concrete oils. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute pressure
Pressure measured with respect to zero pressure. ... Compare: gauge pressure. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute refractory period
The period following excitation when no response is possible regardless of the intensity of the stimulus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute risk
<statistics> The excess risk due to exposure to a specific hazard (disease, injury, etc.) ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

absolute scale
An obsolete term for Kelvin scale. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute scotoma
A scotoma in which there is no perception of light. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute system of units
A system based on absolute units accepted as being fundamental (length, mass, time) and from which other units (force, energy or work, power) are derived; such system's in common use are the foot-pound-second, centimeter-gram-second, and meter-kilogram-second system's. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute temperature
Temperature reckoned in Kelvins from absolute zero. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute terminal innervation ratio
The number of motor endplates divided by the number of terminal axons related to them. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute threshold
The lowest limit of any perception whatever. ... Compare: differential threshold. ... Synonym: stimulus threshold. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute unit
A unit whose value is constant regardless of place or time and not derived from dependent on gravitation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute viscosity
Force per unit area applied tangentially to a fluid, causing unit rate of displacement of parallel planes separated by a unit distance; units in CGS system: poise. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absolute zero
<chemistry, physics> This is the lowest possible temperature (0 Kelvin, -273.15 degrees Celsius, -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit). at this temperature, all molecular motion stops. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

absolution
1. An absolving, or setting free from guilt, sin, or penalty; forgiveness of an offense. 'Government . . . Granting absolution to the nation.' ... 2. An acquittal, or sentence of a judge declaring and accused person innocent. ... 3. The exercise of priestly jurisdiction in the sacrament of penance, by which Catholics believe the sins of the truly pen …

absorb
<chemistry> To take up liquid or other matter. ... See: absorption. ... (15 Jan 1998) ...

absorbable gelatin film
A sterile, nonantigenic, absorbable, water-insoluble, thin sheet of gelatin prepared by drying a gelatin-formaldehyde solution on plates; used in the closure and repair of defects in membranes such as the dura mater or the pleura; it undergoes absorption over a period of 1 to 6 months. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbable gelatin sponge
A sterile, absorbable, water-insoluble gelatin base sponge, used to control capillary bleeding in surgical operations; it is left in situ and is absorbed in from 4 to 6 weeks. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbable surgical suture
A surgical suture material prepared from a substance that can be digested by body tissues and is therefore not permanent; it is available in various diameters and tensile strengths, and can be treated to modify its resistance to absorption and be impregnated with antimicrobial agents. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

absorbance
1. <chemistry, investigation> Absorbance is defined as a logarithmic function of the percent transmission of a wavelength of light through a liquid. ... 2. <microbiology> This can be used as a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a suspension of bacterial cells or a solution of an organic molecule, it is measured by a colourimeter …