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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


Abegg, Richard
<person> Danish chemist, 1869-1910. ... See: Abegg's rule. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abegg's rule
The tendency of the sum of the maximum positive and maximum negative valence of a particular element to equal 8; e.g., C may have a valence of +4 and -4, O of +6 and -2. Sometimes loosely stated as all atoms have the same number of valences, a consequence of the tendency of valence electron shells to be filled to 8. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abel, Rudolf
<person> German bacteriologist, 1868-1942. ... See: Abel's bacillus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abel's bacillus
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Ozaenae ... See: Klebsiella ozaenae. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abell-Kendall method
A standard method for estimation of total serum cholesterol involving saponification of cholesterol ester by hydroxide, extraction with petroleum ether, and colour development with acetic anhydride-sulfuric acid; the method avoids interference by bilirubin, protein, and haemoglobin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abelson leukaemia virus
A defective murine leukaemia virus capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukaemia after superinfection with friend, moloney, or rauscher virus. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

Abelson murine leukaemia virus
A retrovirus belonging to the Type C retrovirus group subfamily (family Oncovirinae) which is associated with leukaemia and produces in vitro transformation of mouse cells. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abelson, Herbert T
<person>U.S. Paediatrician, *1941. ... See: Abelson murine leukaemia virus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abembryonic
The area of the blastocyst opposite the region where the embryo is formed. ... Origin: L. Ab, from, + embryonic ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abenteric
A rarely used term meaning away from the intestine, said of a morbid process occurring elsewhere that would normally occur in the intestine. ... Origin: L. Ab, from, + G. Enteron, intestine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abequose synthase
<enzyme> Converts cdp-4-keto-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose to cdp-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (cdp-abequose); requires NADPH, analogous to udp-glucose-4-epimerase ... Registry number: EC 5.1.3.- ... Synonym: rfbj gene product ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

abequosyltransferase
<enzyme> A dideoxyhexosyltransferase in salmonella enterica groups b and c2; partial amino acid sequence given in first source ... Registry number: EC 2.4.1.- ... Synonym: abequosyl transferase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

Abernethy, John
<person> British surgeon and anatomist, 1764-1831. ... See: Abernethy's fascia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Abernethy's fascia
A layer of subperitoneal areolar tissue in front of the external iliac artery. ... See: iliac fascia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant
Wandering or deviating from the usual or normal course. ... Origin: L. Aberrans ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

aberrant artery
Artery having an unusual origin or course. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant bile ducts
Small duct's occasionally present in the ligaments of the liver or originating from the surface of the liver. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant bundles
A group, or groups, of fibres from the corticobulbar or corticonuclear tract, directed to each of the motor nuclei of cranial nerves. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant complex
An anomalous electrocardiographic complex, more specifically an abnormal ventricular complex caused by abnormal intraventricular conduction of a supraventricular impulse. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant ducts
Synonym for aberrant ductules ... The superior or inferior diverticula of the epididymis. ... Synonym: ductuli aberrantes, aberrant ducts, ductus aberrantes, vasa aberrantes. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant ductules
The superior or inferior diverticula of the epididymis. ... Synonym: ductuli aberrantes, aberrant ducts, ductus aberrantes, vasa aberrantes. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant ganglion
A collection of nerve cells sometimes found on a posterior spinal nerve root between the spinal ganglion and the spinal cord. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant goiter
Enlargement of a supernumerary thyroid gland. ... Synonym: struma aberrata. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant haemoglobin
A mutant Hb that functions abnormally. ... Compare: variant haemoglobin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant obturator artery
See: pubic branch of inferior epigastric artery. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant regeneration
Misdirected regrowth of nerve fibres seen for example, after oculomotor nerve injury. ... Synonym: misdirection phenomenon. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberrant ventricular conduction
Abnormal intraventricular conduction of a supraventricular beat, especially where surrounding beats are normally conducted. ... Synonym: ventricular aberration. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aberration
1. <ophthalmology> Any error that results in image degradation. Such errors may be chromatic, spherical, astigmatic chromatic, distortion, or curvature of field: and can result from design or execution, or both. ... 2. <physics> Failure of an optical or electron-optical lens to produce exact geometrical (and chromatic) correspondence bet …

aberration, chromatic
<optics> A defect in a lens or optical system due to the greater refraction of shorter wavelengths over that of loner ones at a lens surface. ... Hence the focal length of a simple lens is shorter for blue than for red rays. This dispersion of the wave-lengths will cause colour fringes in the image field of a lens with such an aberration. ... ( …

aberration, spherical
<optics> A lens defect whereby image forming rays of one colour, passing through the outer zones of a lens come to focus at a different distance from the lens than do those of more central rays. ... With a simple spherical (or plano-spherical) lens the outer rays always meet the axis closer to the lens than do more central rays and the lens is …

aberrometer
An instrument for measuring optical aberration or any error in experimentation. ... Origin: L. Aberratio, aberration, + G. Metron, measure ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abetalipoproteinaemia
<biochemistry, disease> A rare congenital disorder that causes the body to not produce chylomicrons, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Individuals with this condition are unable to properly digest fats. ... Other findings include ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and other forms of nerve dysfunction. ... Treatme …

abeyance
A state of temporary abolition of function. ... Origin: fr. O. Fr. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abfarad
Electromagnetic unit of capacity equal to 109 farads. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABG
Synonym for arterial blood gas ... A test which analyses arterial blood for oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate content in addition to blood pH. Used to test the effectiveness of respiration. ... Acronym: ABG ... (17 Oct 1997) ...

abhenry
Electromagnetic unit of inductance equal to 10-9 henry. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abhorrent
1. Abhorring; detesting; having or showing abhorrence; loathing; hence, strongly opposed to; as, abhorrent thoughts. 'The persons most abhorrent from blood and treason.' (Burke) 'The arts of pleasure in despotic courts I spurn abhorrent.' (Clover) ... 2. Contrary or repugnant; discordant; inconsistent; followed by to. 'Injudicious profanation, so ab …

abient
Having a tendency to move away from the source of a stimulus, as opposed to adient. ... Origin: L. Abiens, fr. Ab-eo, to go from ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abietadiene cyclase
<enzyme> Converts geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-abieta-7(8),13(14)-diene; from lodgepole pine or grand fir ... Registry number: EC 5.- ... Synonym: abietadiene synthase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

abietene
<chemistry> A volatile oil distilled from the resin or balsam of the nut pine (Pinus sabiniana) of California. ... Origin: L. Abies, abietis, a fir tree. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abietic
<botany> Of or pertaining to the fir tree or its products; as, abietic acid, ... Synonym: sylvic acid. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abietine
<chemistry> A resinous obtained from Strasburg turpentine or Canada balsam. It is without taste or smell, is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol (especially at the boiling point), in strong acetic acid, and in ether. ... See: Abietene. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abietinic
<chemistry> Of or pertaining to abietin; as, abietinic acid. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

ability
The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; in the plural, faculty, talent. 'Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren.' (Acts xi. …

abiogenesis
<study> The scientific study of how life originally arose on the planet, presumably from nonliving things and the presence of nonliving organic matter. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abiogenetic
<biology> Of or pertaining to abiogenesis. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abiogenic
<biology> Refers to things not involved with or produced by living organisms. ... Origin: Gr. Gennan = to produce ... (06 May 1997) ...

abiogeny
Synonym for abiogenesis ... <study> The scientific study of how life originally arose on the planet, presumably from nonliving things and the presence of nonliving organic matter. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abiological
Pertaining to the study of inanimate things. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abioseston
<biology> A general term for dead organic material floating suspended in ocean water. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abiotic
<biology> Refers to nonliving objects, substances or processes. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abiotic stress
<botany> Nonliving environmental factors (such as drought, extreme cold or heat, high winds) that can have harmful effects on plants. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abiotic transformation
<biochemistry> An abiotic transformation is any process in which a chemical in the environment is altered by non-biological mechanisms (such as by exposure to sunlight). ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

abiotrophy
<biology> Premature loss of a cell or tissues ability to function. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abirritant
<pharmacology> A medicine that diminishes irritation. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

abl
<bacteria> A gram-negative, rod shaped flagellated bacterium responsible for crown gall tumour in plants. Following infection the T1 plasmid from the bacterium becomes integrated into the host plant's DNA and the presence of the bacterium is no longer necessary for the continued growth of the tumour. ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

ablactation
1. <zoology> The weaning of a child from the breast, or of young beasts from their dam. ... 2. <botany> The process of grafting now called inarching, or grafting by approach. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

ablaqueate
<botany> To lay bare, as the roots of a tree. ... Origin: L. Ablaqueatus, p. P. Of. Ablaqueare; fr. Ab + laqueus a noose. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

ablastin
An antibody that seems to inhibit reproduction of trypanosomes; found in rats infected with Trypanosoma lewisi. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + blastos, germ ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ablate
To remove, usually by cutting. at surgery a tumour may be ablated. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

ablatio placentae
Synonym for abruptio placentae ... <obstetrics> This is the premature separation of the placenta, i.e. Separation of the placenta from the site of implantation on the uterus before the delivery of the foetus. It is a life threatening condition for the foetus and occurs about 1 in 500 to 750 deliveries. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

ablation
1. A carrying or taking away; removal. ... 2. <medicine> Extirpation. ... 3. <geology> Wearing away; superficial waste. ... See: tolerate. ... Origin: L. Ablatio, fr. Ablatus p. P. Of auferre to carry away; ab + latus, p. P. Of ferre carry: cf. F. Ablation. ... (11 Mar 1998) ...

ablative
1. Taking away or removing. 'Where the heart is forestalled with misopinion, ablative directions are found needful to unteach error, ere we can learn truth.' (Bp. Hall) ... 2. Applied to one of the cases of the noun in Latin and some other languages, the fundamental meaning of the case being removal, separation, or taking away. ... See: ablation. ... …

ablepharia
Congenital absence, partial or complete, of the eyelids; recessive inheritance. ... See: cryptophthalmus. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + blepharon, eyelid ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ablution
1. The act of washing or cleansing; specifically, the washing of the body, or some part of it, as a religious rite. ... 2. The water used in cleansing. 'Cast the ablutions in the main.' ... 3. A small quantity of wine and water, which is used to wash the priest's thumb and index finger after the communion, and which then, as perhaps containing portio …

ablutomania
<psychiatry> Rarely used term for a morbid preoccupation with thoughts about cleanliness, exhibited by frequent washing, as seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder. ... Origin: L. Ablutio, washing, + G. Mania, insanity ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABMT
Synonym for autologous bone marrow transplant ... <haematology, procedure> A process in which a patients healthy bone marrow is withdrawn and preserved. ... It is later injected back into the patient to replace bone marrow damaged by high doses of radiation therapy. It can then produce healthy blood cells. This treatment is used to offset the d …

abnerval
Away from a nerve; denoting specifically a current of electricity passing through a muscular fibre in a direction away from the point of entrance of the nerve fibre. ... Synonym: abneural. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abneural
Away from the neural axis. ... Origin: L. Ab, away from, + G. Neuron, nerve ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abnormal
Not normal, contrary to the usual structure, position, behaviour or rule. ... (06 Oct 1997) ...

abnormal cleavage of cardiac valve
Congenital malformation of a valve leaflet with a defect extending from the free margin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abnormal correspondence
Synonym for anomalous correspondence ... Abnormal correspondence, a condition, frequent in strabismus, in which corresponding retinal points do not have the same visual direction; the fovea of one eye corresponds to an extrafoveal area of the fellow eye. ... Synonym: abnormal correspondence. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abnormal heart chamber dimensions
<radiology> Left ventricular volume overload, left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular volume overload, right ventricular hypertrophy, fixed subvalvular aortic stenosis, hypoplastic left/right ventricle; common ventricle, congestive cardiomyopathy ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abnormal occlusion
An arrangement of the teeth which is not considered to be within the normal range of variation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abnormal placental size
<radiology> TOO BIG (greater than5cm in sections obtained at right angles to the long axis), maternal disease, diabetic mothers (= villous oedema), intrauterine infections, anaemic mothers (= normal histology), foetal disease, erythroblatosis foetalis (= villous oedema and hyperplasia), umbilical vein obstruction, foetal high output failure, …

abnormalities
Congenital malformations of organs or parts. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abnormalities, drug-induced
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abnormalities, radiation-induced
Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abnormality
1. The state or quality of being abnormal. ... 2. An anomaly, deformity, malformation, impairment, or dysfunction. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ABO antigens
<haematology, immunology> A system of genetically determined antigens (proteins) located on the surface of the erythrocyte. ... The presence of these specific antigens gives a blood its unique properties. Because of the antigen differences existing between individuals, blood groups are significant in blood transfusions, maternal-foetal incompa …

ABO blood group
<haematology> The major human blood type system which describes the oligosaccharide glycoprotein antigens found on the surface of human blood cells. ... According to the type of antigen present, a person may be assigned a blood type of A, B, AB or O. A second type of antigen, the Rh factor, renders a positive or negative blood type. The ABO bl …

ABO incompatibility
<haematology> A type of blood incompatibility, found rarely. Transfusion reactions may occur as a result of such incompatibility. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

abohm
Electromagnetic unit of resistance equal to 10-9 ohm. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aboiement
Rarely used term for the involuntary production of abnormal sounds, as seen in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. ... Origin: Fr. Barking, yelping ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abolish
1. To do away with wholly; to annul; to make void; said of laws, customs, institutions, governments, etc.; as, to abolish slavery, to abolish folly. ... 2. To put an end to, or destroy, as a physical objects; to wipe out. 'And with thy blood abolish so reproachful blot.' (Spenser) 'His quick instinctive hand Caught at the hilt, as to abolish him.' ( …

abomasitis
Inflammation of the abomasum. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abomasum
<anatomy> The fourth stomach of the cow. The abomasums of suckling calves are used as a source of rennet, a rennin-containing commercial enzyme preparation used to make cheese. ... (06 May 1997) ...

aborad
In a direction away from the mouth; opposite of orad. ... Origin: L. Ab, from, + os (or-), mouth ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aboriginal
1. An original inhabitant of any land; one of the aborigines. ... 2. An animal or a plant native to the region. 'It may well be doubted whether this frog is an aboriginal of these islands.' (Darwin) ... 1. First; original; indigenous; primitive; native; as, the aboriginal tribes of America. 'Mantled o'er with aboriginal turf.' ... 2. Of or pertaining …

aborted ectopic pregnancy
Synonym for tubal abortion ... The rupture of an oviduct, the seat of ectopic pregnancy, or extrusion of the product of conception through the fimbriated end of the oviduct; aborted ectopic pregnancy, the pregnancy having originated in the fallopian tubes. ... Synonym: aborted ectopic pregnancy. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abortient
Synonym for abortifacient ... <pharmacology> A drug or compound that induces the expulsion of an embryo or foetus. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abortifacient
<pharmacology> A drug or compound that induces the expulsion of an embryo or foetus. ... (06 May 1997) ...

abortifacient agents
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortifacient agents, non-steroidal
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortifacient agents, steroidal
Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortigenic
Synonym: abortifacient. ... Origin: L. Abortus, abortion, + genesis, production ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abortion
1. <obstetrics> The premature expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception of the embryo or of a nonviable foetus. The four classic symptoms, usually present in each type of abortion, are uterine contractions, uterine haemorrhage, softening and dilatation of the cervix and presentation or expulsion of all or part of the products of …

abortion applicants
Individuals requesting induced abortions. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

abortion rate
The number of abortions per 1000 terminated pregnancies during a given period of time. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

abortion, criminal
Illegal termination of pregnancy. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...