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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


acolasia
Rarely used term for morbid intemperance or lust. ... Origin: G. Akolasia, licentiousness ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acology
<study> Materia medica; the science of remedies. ... Origin: Gr. Remedy. ... (04 Mar 1998) ...

acolous
Without limbs. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kolon, limb ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acolyte
1. One who has received the highest of the four minor orders in the Catholic church, being ordained to carry the wine and water and the lights at the Mass. ... 2. One who attends; an assistant. 'With such chiefs, and with James and John as acolytes.' ... Origin: LL. Acolythus, acoluthus, Gr. Following, attending: cf. F. Acolyte. ... Source: Websters D …

acomia
Synonym: alopecia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kome, hair of head ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aconative
Without the desire or wish to act. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + L. Conor, to try ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aconitase
Synonym for aconitate hydratase ... <enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. ... Chemical name: Citrate(isocitrate) hydro-lyase ... Registry number: EC 4.2.1.3 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

aconitate hydratase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. ... Chemical name: Citrate(isocitrate) hydro-lyase ... Registry number: EC 4.2.1.3 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

aconite
1. <botany> The herb wolfsbane, or monkshood; applied to any plant of the genus Aconitum (tribe Hellebore), all the species of which are poisonous. ... 2. An extract or tincture obtained from Aconitum napellus, used as a poison and medicinally. Winter aconite, a plant (Eranthis hyemalis) allied to the aconites. ... Origin: L. Aconitum, Gr., cf. …

aconitia
<chemistry> Same as Aconitine. ... (01 Mar 1998) ...

aconitic acid
<chemical> Chemical name: 1-Propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acontia
1. <zoology> Threadlike defensive organs, composed largely of nettling cells (cnidae), thrown out of the mouth or special pores of certain Actiniae when irritated. ... 2. <zoology> Anciently, a snake, called dart snake; now, one of a genus of reptiles closely allied to the lizards. ... Origin: NL, from Gr. A little dart. ... Source: Webste …

acorea
Congenital absence of the pupil of the eye. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kore, pupil ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acorn
1. <botany> The fruit of the oak, being an oval nut growing in a woody cup or cupule. ... 2. A cone-shaped piece of wood on the point of the spindle above the vane, on the mast-head. ... Origin: AS. Aecern, fr. Aecer field, acre; akin to D. Aker acorn, Ger. Ecker, Icel. Akarn, Dan. Agern, Goth. Akran fruit, akrs field; orig. Fruit of the field. …

acorn-tipped catheter
A catheter used in ureteropyelography to occlude the ureteral orifice and prevent backflow from the ureter during and following the injection of an opaque medium. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acosta, Joseph de
<person> Spanish Jesuit missionary, 1539-1600. ... See: Acosta's disease. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acosta's disease
Synonym for altitude sickness ... A condition that results from prolonged exposure to high altitude. ... Symptoms include a continuous dry cough, shortness of breath, poor exercise tolerance, dizziness, headache, sleep difficulty, anorexia, confusion, fatigue and a rapid pulse. ... Treatment includes the immediate movement to a lower altitude. Prophyl …

acouasm
Synonym for acousma ... Rarely used term for an auditory hallucination in which indefinite sounds, such as ringing or hissing, are heard. ... Synonym: acouasm. ... Origin: G. Akousma, something heard ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acousma
Rarely used term for an auditory hallucination in which indefinite sounds, such as ringing or hissing, are heard. ... Synonym: acouasm. ... Origin: G. Akousma, something heard ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acousmatamnesia
Rarely used term for a loss of memory for sounds. ... Origin: G. Akousma, something heard, + amnesia, forgetfulness ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic
Pertaining to the sense of hearing, the organs of hearing, or the science of sounds; auditory. Acoustic duct, the auditory duct, or external passage of the ear. Acoustic telegraph, a telegraph making audible signals; a telephone. Acoustic vessels, brazen tubes or vessels, shaped like a bell, used in ancient theaters to propel the voices of the acto …

acoustic agraphia
The inability to write from dictation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic aphasia
Synonym for auditory aphasia ... An impairment in comprehension of the auditory forms of language and communication, including the ability to write from dictation in the presence of normal hearing. Spontaneous speech, reading, and writing are not affected. ... Synonym: acoustic aphasia, word deafness. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic area
The floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle, extending medially to the limiting sulcus and overlying the cochlear and vestibular nuclei of the rhombencephalon. ... Synonym: area acustica. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic cell
A hair cell of the organ of Corti. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic crest
Synonym for ampullary crest ... An elevation on the inner surface of the ampulla of each semicircular duct; filaments of the vestibular nerve pass through the crista to reach hair cells on its surface; the hair cells are capped by the cupula, a gelatinous protein-polysaccharide mass. ... Synonym: crista ampullaris, acoustic crest, transverse septum.< …

acoustic enhancement
A manifestation of increased acoustic signal amplitude returning from regions beyond an object which causes little or no attenuation of the sound beam. ... Compare: acoustic shadow. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic impedance
The resistance that a material offers to the passage of a sound wave (colloquial); a property of a medium computed as the product of density and sound propagation speed (characteristic acoustic impedance). Discontinuities in acoustic impedance are responsible for the echoes on which ultrasound imaging is based. Unit: the rayl. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic impedance tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and …

acoustic lemniscus
Synonym for lateral lemniscus ... A bundle of ascending fibres that originate from the cochlear and auditory relay nuclei of the rhombencephalon, enter the trapezoid body, a transverse fibre stratum in which about half their number decussate, and from here turn rostrally along the lateral side of the spinothalamic tract; in the midbrain, it arches d …

acoustic lens
In ultrasonography, a lens used to focus or diverge a sound beam; may be simulated by electronic manipulation of signals. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic maculae
Thickened areas of the saccule and utricle where the termination of the vestibular nerve occurs. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acoustic meatus
Synonym for external acoustic meatus ... The passage leading inward through the tympanic portion of the temporal bone, from the auricle to the tympanic membrane; it consists of a bony (inner) portion and a fibrocartilaginous (outer) portion, the cartilaginous external acoustic meatus. ... Synonym: meatus acusticus externus, acoustic meatus, antrum au …

acoustic nerve
<anatomy, nerve> The 8th cranial nerve. The acoustic (or vestibulocochlear) nerve has a cochlear part which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibres of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the spiral ganglion and project to the cochlear nuclei. The fibres of the …

acoustic nerve diseases
Diseases of the eighth cranial nerve. These include vestibular neuronitis, cochlear neuritis and acoustic neuroma. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acoustic neurilemoma
<tumour> Schwannoma arising from cranial nerve eight. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic neuroma
<oncology, tumour> This is a benign tumour of the 8th cranial nerve. This tumour arises from the myelin forming Schwann cells that coat the 8th cranial nerve (acoustic nerve). ... Clinical presentation usually includes hearing deficit. ... Diagnosis can be made with auditory evoked potentials and/or MRI scanning of the brain. Vertigo and tinnit …

acoustic papilla
Synonym for spiral organ ... A prominent ridge of highly specialised epithelium in the floor of the cochlear duct overlying the basilar membrane of cochlea, containing one inner row and three outer rows of hair cells, or cells of Corti (the auditory receptor cells innervated by the cochlear nerve) supported by various columnar cells: the pillars of …

acoustic pressure
In ultrasound, the instantaneous value of the total pressure minus the ambient pressure; unit is pascal (Pa). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic radiation
The fibres that pass from the medial geniculate body to the transverse temporal gyri of the cerebral cortex by way of the sublentiform part of the internal capsule. ... Synonym: radiatio acustica. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic reference level
The biological reference level for sound measurements. When the term decibel is used to indicate the noise level, a reference quantity is implied; this reference value is usually expressed as a sound pressure of 20 micronewtons per square meter. The reference level is referred to as 0 decibels, the baseline of the scale of noise level's; this basel …

acoustic schwannoma
<tumour> A benign neoplasm of the intracranial segment of the eighth cranial nerve, producing cerebellar, lower cranial nerve, and brainstem signs and symptoms. ... Synonym: acoustic neuroma, cerebellopontine angle tumour, eighth nerve tumour. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic shadow
Sonographic appearance of reduced echo amplitude from regions lying beyond an attenuating object. ... Compare: acoustic enhancement. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic spots
See: macula of utricle, macula of saccule. ... Bitot's spots, small, circumscribed, lusterless, grayish white, foamy, greasy, triangular deposits on the bulbar conjunctiva adjacent to the cornea in the area of the palpebral fissure of both eyes; occurs in vitamin A deficiency. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic striae
Synonym for medullary striae of fourth ventricle ... Slender fascicles of fibres extending transversally below the ependymal floor of the ventricle from the median sulcus to enter the inferior cerebellar peduncle. They arise from the arcuate nuclei on the ventral surface of the medullary pyramid. ... Synonym: striae medullares ventriculi quarti, acou …

acoustic tetanus
Experimental tetanus induced by a faradic current, the speed of which is estimated by the pitch of the vibrations. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic tolerance
The maximum sound pressure level that can be experienced without producing pain or permanent defect of hearing in a normal individual. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic trauma deafness
Sensorineural hearing loss due to overexposure to high intensity noise levels. ... Synonym: boilermaker's deafness, industrial deafness, occupational deafness. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic tubercle
Synonym for trigone of auditory nerve ... The slight prominence of the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle, corresponding to the underlying cochlear and vestibular nuclei. ... Synonym: acoustic tubercle, trigonum acustici. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustic vesicle
Synonym for auditory vesicle ... One of the paired sacs of invaginated ectoderm that develop into the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. ... Synonym: acoustic vesicle, otic vesicle. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acousticofacial crest
The part of the neural crest from which the ganglia of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves develop. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acousticofacial ganglion
A primordial ganglionic cell mass in young embryos which later separates into the acoustic or spiral ganglion of the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve and the geniculate ganglion of the facial (seventh cranial) nerve. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acousticopalpebral reflex
Synonym for cochleopalpebral reflex ... A form of the wink reflex in which there is a contraction, sometimes very slight, of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle when a sudden noise is made close to the ear; it is absent in labyrinthine disease with total deafness. ... Synonym: acousticopalpebral reflex, auropalpebral reflex, cochleo-orbicular reflex, …

acousticophobia
<psychology> Morbid fear of sounds. ... Origin: G. Akoustikos, acoustic, + phobos, fear ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acoustics
<physics> The science of sounds, teaching their nature, phenomena, and laws. 'Acoustics, then, or the science of sound, is a very considerable branch of physics.' (Sir J. Herschel) ... The science is, by some writers, divided, into diacoustics, which explains the properties of sounds coming directly from the ear; and catacoustica, which treats …

ACP
<abbreviation> Acyl carrier protein. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ACP-acetyltransferase
Enzyme transferring acetyl from acetyl-CoA to acyl carrier protein and releasing CoA to begin fatty acid synthesis. ... Synonym: acetyl transacylase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ACP-malonyltransferase
<enzyme> An enzyme transferring malonyl from malonyl-CoA to acyl carrier protein and releasing free CoA; a key step in fatty acid synthesis. ... Synonym: malonyl transacylase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ACPS
<abbreviation> Acrocephalosyndactyly. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquiesce
1. To rest satisfied, or apparently satisfied, or to rest without opposition and discontent (usually implying previous opposition or discontent); to accept or consent by silence or by omitting to object; followed by in, formerly also by with and to. 'They were compelled to acquiesce in a government which they did not regard as just.' (De Quincey)
acquired
In medicine, the word acquired means new or added. New in the sense that it is not genetic (inherited) and added in the sense that is was not congenital (present at birth) but came along later. For example, AIDS is an acquired, not a genetic form of immune deficiency. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acquired agammaglobulinaemia
Synonym for common variable immunodeficiency ... Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acquired bronchiectasis
Synonym for bronchiectasis ... <chest medicine> Persistent and progressive dilation of bronchi or bronchioles as a consequence of inflammatory disease (lung infections), obstruction (tumour) or congenital abnormality (for example cystic fibrosis). ... Symptoms include fetid breath and paroxysmal coughing, with the expectoration of mucopurulent …

acquired centric relation
See: centric jaw relation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired character
A character developed in a plant or animal as a result of environmental influences during the individual's life. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired cuticle
Synonym for acquired pellicle ... A thin film (about 1 um), derived mainly from salivary glycoproteins, which forms over the surface of a cleansed tooth crown when it is exposed to the saliva. ... Synonym: acquired cuticle, acquired enamel cuticle, brown pellicle, posteruption cuticle. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired drives
Synonym for secondary drives ... Those drives not directly related to biological needs; a secondary drive can be learned as an offshoot of a primary drive, in which case it is often referred to as a motive. ... Synonym: acquired drives. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired eccentric relation
An eccentric relation that is assumed by habit in order to bring the teeth into occlusion. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired epileptic aphasia
Synonym for landau-kleffner syndrome ... <syndrome> Acquired epileptic aphasia. The typical history is that of a child whose development is normal for several years and then, either suddenly or in a fluctuating manner, loses comprehension of speech and the ability to use speech to communicate. The seizures are of no specific type, and are most …

acquired haemolytic anaemia
Nonhereditary acute or chronic anaemia associated with or caused by extracorpuscular factors, e.g., certain infectious agents, chemicals (including autoantibodies or therapeutic agents), burns, toxic materials from higher plant and animal forms (including snake venoms). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired haemolytic icterus
Icterus and anaemia occuring in association with a moderate degree of splenomegaly, increased fragility of red blood cells, and increased amounts of urobilin in the urine. ... Synonym: icteroanaemia. ... Origin: G. Ikteros ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired hyperlipidaemia
<biochemistry> A condition of elevated blood triglycerides or blood cholesterol that is a result of secondary factors (for example poor diet, drug-related causes, diabetes, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome). ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acquired hyperlipoproteinaemia
Nonfamilial hyperlipoproteinaemia that develops as a consequence of some primary disease, such as thyroid deficiency. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia
Synonym for common variable immunodeficiency ... Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acquired ichthyosis
A thickening and scaling of the skin associated with some malignant diseases (e.g., Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma), leprosy, and severe nutritional deficiencies. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired immunity
<immunology> A form of cellular defense which identifies certain foreign substances (antigens) as harmful to the body. For this reason, the body can acquire resistance to a particular foreign agent. ... These foreign agents are then attacked by sensitised T lymphocytes (cellular immunity). White blood cells, plasma cells, B lymphocytes and oth …

acquired immunodeficiency disease
Acquired immunodeficiency disease: Disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
<immunology, syndrome> An epidemic disease caused by an infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, HIV-2), a retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation and is often accompanied by infections such as tuberculosis. AIDS is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids. ... Acronym: AIDS ... (10 May 1997) ...

acquired leukoderma
<dermatology> This disorder is characterised by regions of otherwise normal skin of nonpigmented white patches of varied sizes, often symmetrically distributed and usually bordered by hyperpigmented areas. Hair in the affected areas is usually, but not always, white. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acquired leukopathia
<dermatology> This disorder is characterised by regions of otherwise normal skin of nonpigmented white patches of varied sizes, often symmetrically distributed and usually bordered by hyperpigmented areas. Hair in the affected areas is usually, but not always, white. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acquired megacolon
Megacolon occurring on the basis of an acquired disease; occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (toxic megacolon) and Chagas' disease (South American trypanosomiasis). ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired methemoglobinaemia
Methemoglobinaemia caused by various chemical agents, such as nitrites. ... Synonym: enterogenous methemoglobinaemia, secondary methemoglobinaemia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome that occurs in a single cell after the conception of the individual. That change is then passed along to all cells descended from that cell. Acquired mutations are involved in the development of cancer. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acquired nevus
A melanocytic nevus that is not visible at birth, but appears in childhood or adult life. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired pellicle
A thin film (about 1 um), derived mainly from salivary glycoproteins, which forms over the surface of a cleansed tooth crown when it is exposed to the saliva. ... Synonym: acquired cuticle, acquired enamel cuticle, brown pellicle, posteruption cuticle. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired platelet function defect
<haematology> Platelet function can be affected by a number of different disease processes including polycythaemia vera, leukaemia, myelofibrosis, renal failure, multiple myeloma and some medications (for example penicillins, salicylates, phenothiazines). ... Disturbed blood clotting can be manifested by: easy bruising, bleeding gums, noseblee …

acquired reflex
Synonym for conditioned reflex ... A reflex that is gradually developed by training and association through the frequent repetition of a definite stimulus. ... See: conditioning. ... Synonym: acquired reflex, behaviour reflex, trained reflex. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquired sensitivity
Synonym for allergy ... 1. <immunology> A state of hypersensitivity induced by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in harmful immunologic reactions on subsequent exposures, the term is usually used to refer to hypersensitivity to an environmental antigen (atopic allergy or contact dermatitis) or to drug allergy. ... The origin …

acquired toxoplasmosis
In adults, a form of toxoplasmosis that may result in fever, encephalomyelitis, chorioretinopathy, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, myalgia, myocarditis, and pneumonitis; a lymphadenopathic form seems to be more prevalent in adults, and such persons may manifest fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, and headache, a form frequently found in patients with …

acquired trichoepithelioma
Synonym for dilated pore ... An enlarged follicular opening of the skin, with a keratinous plug and occasional lanugo or mature hair. ... Synonym: acquired trichoepithelioma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquisition
In psychology, the empirical demonstration of an increase in the strength of the conditioned response in successive trials of pairing the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acquisitus
An obsolete term for acquired. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

ACR
<abbreviation> American College of Radiology. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acral
Relating to or affecting the peripheral parts, e.g., limbs, fingers, ears, etc. ... Origin: G. Akron, extremity ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acral lentiginous melanoma
<tumour> A form of malignant lentigo melanoma that occurs in acral areas not excessively exposed to sunlight and where hair follicles are absent. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acranial
Having no cranium; relating to acrania or an acranius. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acranius
A malformed foetus exhibiting acrania. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acrel, Olof
<person> Swedish surgeon, 1717-1806. ... See: Acrel's ganglion. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Acrel's ganglion
Pseudoganglion on the posterior interosseous nerve on the dorsal aspect of the wrist joint, a cyst on a tendon of an extensor muscle at the level of the wrist. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acremonium
A deuteromycetous fungal genus of the class hyphomycetes. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...