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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


acid-base equilibrium
A condition in which the net rate of acid or alkali production by the body is balanced by the net rate of acid or alkali excretion from the body, resulting in a stable concentration of hydrogen ions in the body fluids. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acid-base imbalance
Disturbances in the acid-base equilibrium of the body. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acid-citrate-dextrose
A citrate anticoagulant used for the collection and preservation of whole blood. It has largely been replaced by newer coagulants (CPD, Adsol) that allow for longer shelf life for blood and blood products. ... Acronym: ACD ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acid-etched restoration
The restoration of tooth structure with a resin after the surface of the tooth has been treated with an acid solution that etches the tooth surface, thereby increasing retention of the restoration. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acid-fast
<microbiology> A term used to denote bacteria that are not decolorised by acid-alcohol after having been stained with dyes such as basic fuchsin. ... The presence of acid fast organisms can be found in cultures that contain mycobacteria or some of the nocardiae. ... (12 Jul 2000) ...

acid-fast stain
<technique> A staining technique used to determine the cell wall property of a microorganism. After stained with dye such as hot carbolfuschin, an acid-fast organism, (for example Mycobacterium species) will retain the colour in its cell wall after being washed with acid-alcohol. ... (13 Nov 1997) ...

acidaminuria
An obsolete term for aminoaciduria. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidemia
An increase in the H-ion concentration of the blood or a fall below normal in pH, notwithstanding alterations in bicarbonate concentration. Individual types of acidemia are listed by specific name, e.g., isovalericacidemia, aminoacidemia, etc. ... Origin: acid + G. Haima, blood ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidic amino acid
An Amino acid with a second acid moiety, e.g., glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cysteic acid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidic anhydride
<chemistry> A substance (such as the oxide of a nonmetallic element) that will react with water to form an acid. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acidic dyes
Dye's which ionise in solution to produce negatively charged ions or anions; they consist of sodium salts of phenols and carboxylic acid dyes; their solutions tend to be neutral or slightly alkaline; examples are eosin and aniline blue. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidified serum test
Lysis of the patient's red cells in acidified fresh serum, specific for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. ... Synonym: Ham's test. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidity
<chemistry> The quality of being acid or sour, containing acid (hydrogen ions). ... Origin: L. Aciditas ... (18 Nov 1997) ...

acidocyte
An obsolete term for eosinophilic leukocyte. ... Origin: acid + G. Kytos, cell ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidogenic fermentation
<biochemistry, microbiology> Any fermentation that produces a weak acid, such as lactic acid. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acidophil
1. One of the acid-staining cells of the anterior pituitary. ... 2. A microorganism that grows well in a highly acid media. ... Synonym: acidophilic. ... Origin: acid + G. Philos, fond ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidophil adenoma
<endocrinology, oncology, tumour> A benign tumour, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. ... Such pituitary tumours may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhoea …

acidophil cell
A cell whose cytoplasm or its granules stain with acid dyes. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidophil granule
A granule that stains with an acid dye such as eosin. ... Synonym: oxyphil granule. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidophile
<microbiology> Describes any microorganism that can or must live in an acidic environment (pH below 6). ... (06 May 1997) ...

acidophilic
Having an affinity for acid dyes; denoting a cell or tissue element that stains with an acid dye, such as eosin. ... Synonym: acidophil, acidophile, oxychromatic. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidophilic leukocyte
Synonym for eosinophilic leukocyte ... A polymorphonuclear leukocyte characterised by many large or prominent, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that are fairly uniform in size and bright yellow-red or orange when treated with Wright's or similar stains; the nuclei are usually larger than those of neutrophils, do not stain as deeply, and characterist …

acidophilus
<microbiology> Bacteria found in yogurt that help restore a supportive bacterial environment to an intestinal tract affected by disease and antibiotics. Ingesting acidophilus also may be useful in preventing candidiasis (thrush), including in the vagina. ... (13 Nov 1997) ...

acidophilus milk
Milk inoculated with a culture of Bacillus acidophilus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acidosis
<biochemistry> A metabolic condition, characterised by an increase in hydrogen ion concentration, that occurs when the body is no longer able to buffer free hydrogen ions in the blood, resluting from either the accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate) in the blood and body tissues. This usually causes the pH of …

acidotic
Pertaining to or indicating acidosis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acids, carbocyclic
Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acids, heterocyclic
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which atleast one atom other than carbon is incorporated. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acids, noncarboxylic
Inorganic acids with a non metal, other than carbon, attached to hydrogen, or an acid radical containing no carbon. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acidulant
<pharmacology> Food additive that is used to impart a sharp flavour. The most common acidulant is citric acid (produced by the fermentation of molasses or other sugars by the fungusAspergillus niger). Malic acid and fumaric acid are also frequently used. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acidulated phosphate fluoride
<chemical> Phosphoric acid, mixt. With sodium fluoride (naf). A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries. ... Pharmacological action: fluorides, topical. ... Chemical name: Phosphoric acid, mixt. With sodium fluoride (NaF) ... (1 …

aciduria
1. Excretion of an acid urine. ... 2. Excretion of an abnormal amount of any specified acid. Individual types of aciduria are prefixed by the specific acid; e.g., aminoaciduria, ketoaciduria. ... Origin: acid + G. Ouron, urine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aciduric
Pertaining to bacteria that tolerate an acid environment. ... Origin: acid + L. Duro, to endure ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinar
Pertaining to the acinus. ... Synonym: acinic. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinar carcinoma
Synonym for acinic cell adenocarcinoma ... <tumour> An adenocarcinoma arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. ... Synonym: acinar carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, acinose carcinoma, acinous carcinoma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinar cell
Any secreting cell lining an acinus, especially applied to the cell's of the pancreas that furnish pancreatic juice and enzymes to distinguish them from the cell's of ducts and the islets of Langerhans. ... Synonym: acinous cell. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinar cell tumour
A solid and cystic tumour of the pancreas, occurring in young women; tumour cells contain zymogen granules. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinetobacter
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family neisseriaceae, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acinetobacter calcoaceticus
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acinetobacter infections
Infections with bacteria of the genus acinetobacter. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acini
<anatomy> The parts of the breast gland where fluid or milk is produced. ... [singular: acinus] ... (13 Nov 1997) ...

acinic
Synonym for acinar ... Pertaining to the acinus. ... Synonym: acinic. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinic cell adenocarcinoma
<tumour> An adenocarcinoma arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. ... Synonym: acinar carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, acinose carcinoma, acinous carcinoma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinic cell carcinoma
Synonym for acinic cell adenocarcinoma ... <tumour> An adenocarcinoma arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. ... Synonym: acinar carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, acinose carcinoma, acinous carcinoma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aciniform
Synonym: acinous. ... Origin: L. Acinus, grape, + forma, shape ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinitis
Inflammation of an acinus. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinose
Synonym for acinous ... Resembling an acinus or grape-shaped structure. ... Synonym: aciniform, acinose. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinotubular gland
Synonym for tubuloacinar gland ... A gland whose secretory elements are elongated acini. ... Synonym: acinotubular gland. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinous
Resembling an acinus or grape-shaped structure. ... Synonym: aciniform, acinose. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinous carcinoma
Synonym for acinic cell adenocarcinoma ... <tumour> An adenocarcinoma arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. ... Synonym: acinar carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, acinose carcinoma, acinous carcinoma. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinous cell
Synonym for acinar cell ... Any secreting cell lining an acinus, especially applied to the cell's of the pancreas that furnish pancreatic juice and enzymes to distinguish them from the cell's of ducts and the islets of Langerhans. ... Synonym: acinous cell. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinous gland
A gland in which the secretory unit(s) has a grapelike shape and a very small lumen; e.g., the exocrine part of the pancreas. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acinus
Origin: L, grape, grapestone. ... 1. <botany> One of the small grains or drupelets which make up some kinds of fruit, as the blackberry, raspberry, etc. A grapestone. ... 2. <anatomy> One of the granular masses which constitute a racemose or compound gland, as the pancreas; also, one of the saccular recesses in the lobules of a racemose g …

acitretin
<chemical> An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of etretinate with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate. ... Pharmacological action: keratolytic agents. ... Chemical name: 2,4,6,8-Nonatetraenoic acid, 9-(4-methoxy-2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,7-dimethyl-, (all-E)- …

ackee poisoning
An acute and frequently fatal vomiting disease associated with central nervous system symptoms and marked hypoglycaemia, caused by eating unripe ackee fruit of Blighia spaida, a tree common in Jamaica. ... Synonym: Jamaican vomiting sickness. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aclarubicin
<chemical> An anthracycline antibiotic produced by streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity, especially in the treatment of leukaemias, with reduced cardiac toxicity in comparison to daunorubicin or doxorubicin. ... Pharmacological action: antibiotics, anthracycline. ... Chemical name: 1-Naphthacenecarboxylic acid,(2-ethyl- …

aclasia
Synonym for aclasis ... A state of continuity between normal and abnormal tissue. ... Synonym: aclasia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + klasis, a breaking away, a fragment ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aclasis
A state of continuity between normal and abnormal tissue. ... Synonym: aclasia. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + klasis, a breaking away, a fragment ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acleistocardia
An obsolete term denoting patency of the foramen ovale of the heart. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kleistos, closed, + kardia, heart ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acmesthesia
1. Sensitivity to pinprick. ... 2. A cutaneous sensation of a sharp point. ... Origin: G. Acme, point, + aisthesis, sensation ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acnaemia
1. Congenital absence of legs. ... 2. Atrophy of the muscles of the calves of the legs. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + kneme, leg ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne
<dermatology> An inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, the specific type usually being indicated by a modifying term, frequently used alone to designate common acne or acne vulgaris. ... Origin: possibly Gr. Akm = a point or achn = chaff ... (15 Nov 1997) ...

acne albida
Acne caused by milia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne artificialis
Acne produced by external irritants, such as tar (chloracne), or drugs internally administered, such as iodides or bromides. ... Synonym: acne venenata. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne bacillus
Synonym for propionibacterium acnes ... A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acne cachecticorum
Acne occurring in persons who have a debilitating constitutional disease; characterised by large, soft, purulent, ulcerative, cystic, and scarred lesions. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne ciliaris
Follicular papules and pustules on the free edges of the eyelids. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne conglobata
Severe cystic acne, characterised by cystic lesion, abscesses, communicating sinuses, and thickened, nodular scars; usually sparing the face. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne cosmetica
Low-grade, non-inflammatory acne lesions from repeated application of comedogenic agents in cosmetics. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne decalvans
Synonym for folliculitis decalvans ... A papular or pustular inflammation of the hair follicles of the scalp seen mostly in men, resulting in scarring and loss of hair in the affected area. ... Synonym: acne decalvans, alopecia follicularis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne erythematosa
Synonym for rosacea ... acne rosacea ...

acne frontalis
Synonym for acne varioliformis ... A pyogenic infection involving follicles occurring chiefly on the forehead and temples; involution of the umbilicated and crusting lesions is followed by scar formation. ... Synonym: acne frontalis, acne necrotica. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne fulminans
Severe scarring acne in teenaged males, which may be associated with fever, polyarthralgia, crusted ulcerative lesions, weight loss, and anaemia. ... Origin: fulmen, fulminis, thunder, lightning ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne generalis
Acne lesions involving the face, chest, and back. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne hypertrophica
Acne vulgaris in which the lesions, on healing, leave hypertrophic scars. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne indurata
Deeply seated acne, with large papules and pustules, large scars, and hypertrophic scars. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne keloid
A type of acneiform disorder in which secondary pyogenic infection in and around pilosebaceous structures ends in keloidal scarring. It manifests as persistent folliculitis of the back of the neck associated with occlusion of the follicular orifices. It is most often encountered in black or asian men. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acne keratosa
An eruption of papules consisting of horny plugs projecting from the hair follicles, accompanied by inflammation. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne medicamentosa
Acne caused or exacerbated by drugs, e.g., antiepileptic, halogens, steroids, tuberculostatic. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne necrotica
Synonym for acne varioliformis ... A pyogenic infection involving follicles occurring chiefly on the forehead and temples; involution of the umbilicated and crusting lesions is followed by scar formation. ... Synonym: acne frontalis, acne necrotica. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne neonatorum
A condition in newborn infants, characterised by papules and comedones on forehead and cheeks. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne papulosa
Acne vulgaris in which the papular lesions predominate. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne punctata
Acne with black open comedones. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne pustulosa
Acne vulgaris in which pustular lesions predominate. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne rosacea
<dermatology> A facial skin disorder which results from chronic inflammation of the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead, and-or eyelids. This is often demonstrated by increased redness or acne-like eruptions in these locations on the face. ... (15 Nov 1997) ...

acne scrofulosorum
Synonym for lichen scrofulosorum ... Small asymptomatic lichen papules on the trunk of children with tuberculosis; acid-fast bacilli are not seen in the dermal granulomas. ... Synonym: acne scrofulosorum, papular scrofuloderma, papular tuberculid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne simplex
Synonym for acne vulgaris ... <dermatology> A form of acne which results from the bacterial infection of cysts deep within the skin. Generally requires treatment with antibiotics and other agents (Isotretinoin). Without treatment cystic acne may result in scarring. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acne syphilitica
Synonym for pustular syphilid ... A type of pustular eruption occurring in secondary syphilis. ... Synonym: acne syphilitica, acneform syphilid, ecthymatous syphilid, impetiginous syphilid, varioliform syphilid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne urticata
An eruption of acne-like lesions, beginning as urticarial papules and followed by slight scarring. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne varioliformis
A pyogenic infection involving follicles occurring chiefly on the forehead and temples; involution of the umbilicated and crusting lesions is followed by scar formation. ... Synonym: acne frontalis, acne necrotica. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne venenata
Synonym for acne artificialis ... Acne produced by external irritants, such as tar (chloracne), or drugs internally administered, such as iodides or bromides. ... Synonym: acne venenata. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acne vulgaris
<dermatology> A form of acne which results from the bacterial infection of cysts deep within the skin. Generally requires treatment with antibiotics and other agents (Isotretinoin). Without treatment cystic acne may result in scarring. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

acneform
Resembling acne. ... Synonym: acneiform. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acneform syphilid
Synonym for pustular syphilid ... A type of pustular eruption occurring in secondary syphilis. ... Synonym: acne syphilitica, acneform syphilid, ecthymatous syphilid, impetiginous syphilid, varioliform syphilid. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acnegenic
Synonym for comedogenic ... Tending to promote the formation of comedones. ... Synonym: acnegenic. ... Origin: comedo + G. Genesis, production ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acneiform
Synonym for acneform ... Resembling acne. ... Synonym: acneiform. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acneiform eruptions
Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acoelomate
<organism> A triploblastic organism which does not have an internal body cavity other than the gut. The area between the gut and the organisms outer body wall is completely filled with tissue derived from the mesoderm. The term is used to classify multicellular animals by developmental pattern. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

ACOG
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acokanthera
Juice from the leaves and stems of Acokanthera ouabaio (family Apocynaceae), a South African arrow poison containing ouabain. ... Origin: G. Akoke, a point, + antheros, blooming ... (05 Mar 2000) ...