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Reveal - Cable, Network Acronyms, Glossary and Terms
Category: Electronics and Engineering > Cable and network
Date & country: 19/01/2008, UK
Words: 202


CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check, an error detection scheme used with ARQ.

Crimping
A means of securing an electrical contact to a wire using tools that compress the metal contact around the wire.

Crosstalk
When unwanted electromagnetic fields from conductors are transferred into adjacent conductors. Crosstalk is controlled by twisting conductors into a pair or separating/shielding conductors.

CRV
Coding Rule Violation, unique bit signal for F bit in frame 1 of CMI.

CS
Convergence Sublayer, where header and trailer are added before segmentation.#

CS-PDU
Convergence layer PDU, info plus new header and trailer to make packet that is generated into cells or SUs.

CSC
Circuit Switched Channel, connection.

CSMA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access

CSPDN
Circuit Switched Public Data Network.

CSU
Channel Service Unit, the interface to the T-1 line that terminates the local loop.

CTS
Clear To Send, lead on interface indicating DCE is ready to receive data.

CV
Coding Violation, transmission error in SONET section.

CVSD
Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation, a voice encoding technique offering variable compression.

DA
Destination address, field in frame header, 802.

DARPA
Defence ARPA, formerly just ARPA.

DAS
Dual Attach, Access Station, device on a main dual FO rings, 4 fibres FDDI

DASS
Digital Access Signalling, protocol for ISDN D channel in the UK.

dB
Decibel, 1/10th of a bel; 10 log (x/y) where x/y is a ratio or like quantities, i.e. power.

DB25
Code for 25 pin connector specific for RS232 interface.

dBm
Decibel level referenced to 1mW at 1004 Hz into 600 ohms impedance.

dBm0
Power that would be at zero TLP reference level.

dBrn
dBrn through a C weighted audio filter, matches the ear's response.

dBrn
Power level relative to noise, dBm + 90

DCC
Data Communications Channel, overhead connection in D bytes for SONENT management.

DCE
Data Communications equipment

DCE
Digital circuit termination equipment

DCS
Digital Cross Connected, DACS

DDCMP
Digital data Communications message protocol.

DDD
Direct distance dialling, refer to PSTN

DDS
Digital data system, network that supports DATAPHONE digital services

DDSD
Delay Dial Start Dial, a start stop protocol for dialling into a CO switch

DES
Data Encryption Standard, moderately difficult to break

Dielectric
The insulating material that separates the centre conductor and the shielding.

DIP
Dual In-line Package, for silicon chips and switches

DIS
Draft International Standard, preliminary form of OSI standard

DISC
Disconnect, command frame sent between LLC entities, layer 2.

DLC
Data Link Connection, one logical bit stream in LAPD, layer 2.

DLC
Digtal Loop Carrier, mux system to gather analogue loops and carry them to CO.

DLCI
Data Link Connection Identifier, address in a frame, I.122

DLE
Data Link Escape, ESC.

DLL
Data Link Layer, Layer 2 OSI.

DM
Disconnected Mode, LLC frame to reject a connection request, layer 2.

DMC
Differential Manchester Code, pulse pattern that puts transition at centre of each bit time for clocking, transition at start of period for 0, 802.5

DMI
Digitally Multiplexed Interface, AT&T interface for 23 64 Kbits channel and a 24th for signalling.

Drawing
The mechanical process of making conductors smaller by forcing through dies.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that causes unwanted responses in electronic equipment disrupting the electrical signals.

Ethernet
The most common of the network standards established in the early 1980s by the IEEE committee under standard 802.3. More on what is Ethernet is here.

Extrusion
The mechanical process of coating a wire or group of wires with insulating material

FDDI
Fibre Distribution Data Interface, 100 Mbit/s FO standard for a LAN or MAN

Firewire
history of firewire

Frequency
The number of times a periodic action occurs in one second. Measured in Hertz.

FRMR
Frame Reject, LLC response to error that cannot be corrected by ARQ, may cause reset or disconnected (layer 2).

HDLC
High-level Data Link Control, layer 2 full duplex protocol

HDMI
HDMI Tutorial

Hub
A network device that receives a signal from one station and retransmits to all other connected stations.

IDC
Insulation Displacement Contact

IEEE 1284
: Also known as a 'parallel printer cable' or 'centronics' cable. It was developed to support higher transmission speeds between computers and parallel printers.

IEEE 1284 EPP
: specification cables giving 1.5Mb bi-directional data transfer at a rate of up to 50 times faster than on normal parallel ports when port is set to EPP mode.

Impedance
The opposition to the flow of alternating or varying current. Measured in Ohms.

Injection Moulding
The process used to inject molten polymer into a mould. Connector backshells are often injection moulded.

Insertion Loss
: See Attenuation

Insulation
A material with very high resistivity used to protect conductors. Insulation is usually extruded over the wire or conductor after the drawing process.

MAC
Medium, Media Access Control, the lower sublayer of the OSI data link layer

MMP
Modified Modular Plug is a proprietary variation of the 6 position plug which was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, DEC.

MODEM
An acronym for MOdulate/DEModulate. Modems are data communications devices that convert digital signals to analogue signals for transmission over analogue public telephone networks.

Network Interface Card (NIC)
Network devices that are installed in computers so that they can be connected to a network. Ethernet NICs come in different speeds as well as with connections to different media types.

NMOS
N-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor, common IC type uses more power than CMOS

Node
A device or station connected to a network.

OSI
Open Systems Interconnection, a 7 layer model for protocols defined by the ISO.

PABX, PBX
Private Branch eXchange, small telephone switch inside a company, manual or automatic. By using the telephone, if you can place calls on hold, transfer or redirect then you are connected to and are using a PABX.

PDU
protocol Data Unit, information packet (ADDR, CTRL, INFO) passed as one level between protocol stacks, OSI

Peer to Peer
A network architecture where computers connect directly with other computers without the need for servers.

Plug
The male connector usually containing a centre pin.

Power Calculation
The following formula is used to calculate wattage (or VA). This formula is useful to determine if a required voltage and current combination will exceed the maximum capacity of a particular AC adapters case.

PSTN
Public switched telephone network, the telco owned dial up network.

RCA Connector
See phono

Redundancy
Utilising multiple access methods so that if one goes down the systems still operate.

Repeater
A network device that regenerates the signal to increase a cabling run.

RG-U
Symbols used to represent coaxial cable that is built to US government specifications (R=Radio Frequency, G=Government, U=Universal Specification

RG11-U Quad-Shield
is used for the same applications as RG6/U for either backbone cabling or for long distribution runs. It features a copper clad steel inner conductor.

RG59U
is available with either solid copper or copper clad steel centre conductor. It is suitable for basic analogue TV antenna feeds in residential applications and for basic CCTV systems over short cable runs. The copper clad steel type has high tensile strength and should be used when terminating the cable with F type connectors.

RG6-U Dual shield
is used for security systems, for analogue TV antenna cabling and for CCTV. It features a copper clad steel inner conductor. Tri-shield and quad-shield versions of RG6/U provide additional EMI shielding for digital applications.

Ring
A network topology where nodes are connected in a ring. Used in Token Ring and SONET networks.

Router
A network device that interconnects networks. Routers provide traffic control and filtering functions, they are commonly used to connect a LAN to the Internet.

Server
A computing device that provides a service to users on a network (clients). An example is a file server that stores and maintains documents for retrieval.

Shielding
A conductive foil or braid that covers insulated wires in a cable. The shield provides electrical grounding and protection from external electromagnetic interference (EMI). Shielding is also used to control internal electromagnetic radiation.

Signal
: The signal is the audio or vide information sent down the wire.

SMT
Station management, NMS for FDDI

Soldering
A means of securing an electrical contact to a wire by heating a low alloy of tin and lead also known as 'solder'.

Solid Wire (or Conductor)
One strand of wire. Usually less flexible, lower in cost and lower in resistance than stranded wire of the same AWG. Solid wire is typically used in permanent installations where flexing does not occur.

SONET
Synchronous Optical Network

Star
The most common network topology where each node is connected to a central point. Advantageous because if one part of the star is lost the network remains intact.

Strain Relief
A method of protecting the wire to contact point from flexing or pulling.

Stranded Wire (or Conductor)
Multiple small AWG strands of wire that are put together to make a flexible wire with similar electrical properties as a similar solid wire. Stranded wires are usually used in data cabling.

Switch
A switch is a multiport bridge that segregates different portions of a network for faster network access (See Basic Ethernet Theory - right).

Synchronous Optical Network, SONET
A Bellcore and ANSI standard that defines transmission of synchronous and time sensitive (ex: real time video) information. SONET provides a way for world-wide carriers to connect equipment.

TCP-IP
Transmission Control Protocol, connection oriented with error correction, which runs on Internet Protocol, a connectionless datagram service.

Token Ring
A networking standard that utilises a ring topology. Information is put onto the ring which is then passed (Token Passing) to the different stations. The amount of time that a station possesses the token is variable which gives some users priority on the network. Token Ring was standardised by IEEE under the 802.5 standard.

Transceiver
A device used to change one media type to another. Transceivers usually get their power from the NIC.

Twinaxial
An offshoot from coaxial cabling. Two centre conductors with one dielectric and braided shielding.