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Reveal - Cable, Network Acronyms, Glossary and Terms
Category: Electronics and Engineering > Cable and network
Date & country: 19/01/2008, UK
Words: 111


Absorption
One cause of attenuation where light signal is absorbed into the glass during transmission.

Access Method
A software/hardware method of transferring data between host-resident application programs and remote device.

Acoustic Coupler
A type of modem that permits use of a telephone handset as a connection to the public telephone network for data transmission by means of sound transducers.

Adaptive equalisation
A modem feature allowing it to automatically compensate for distortion on the line.

Algorithm
A prescribed set of well defined rules or processes for arriving at a solution to a problem. A mathematical process.

Alphanumeric
made up of letters (alphabetic) and numbers (numeric)

Alternative route
A secondary communication path used to reach a destination if the primary path is unavailable.

Ambient noise
Signal interference that is present on a communication line at all times (background noise)

Amplifier
A device that increases the power or amplitude of a signal.

Amplitude modulation
Transmission of information on a communication line by varying voltage level or amplitude.

Amplitude variation (ripple)
unwanted variation of signal voltage at different frequencies on a communication line.

Analogue signal
A signal that changes in a non-discrete manner (smooth transmission to a different levels).

Answer back
A transmission from a receiving data processing device in response to a request from a transmitting data processing device that it is ready to accept or has received data.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM
A very high speed network utilising SONET optical transmission methods through the public telecommunications system.

Attenuation, Insertion Loss
Loss of power. Attenuation is usually measured in dB loss per length of cable (ex. 31.0 dB/100Ft.). Attenuation increases as frequency increases.

Automatic dialler
A device that will automatically dial telephone numbers on the network. Operation of the dialler may be manual or automatic

Backshell, Hood
A mechanical backing that is sometimes put onto a connector. The device protects the conductors and can be assembled or injection moulded. Commonly used with D-Sub connectors.

Balanced circuit
A circuit terminated by a network whose impedance balances the impedance of the line so that the return losses are negligible.

BALUN
An acronym for BALanced/UNbalanced. A device commonly used to change one cabling media to another (ex. coaxial to twisted pair balun).

Bandwidth
The information carrying capability of a communication channel or line.

Base group
Twelve communications paths capable of carrying the human voice on a telephone set. A unit of frequency-division multiple systems bandwidth allocation.

Baud
Data communications rate unit taken from the name Baudot. Defined as the number of signal level changes per second regardless of the information of the information content of those signals.

Baud Rate
A measure of signal changes per second. Commonly used to rate the speed of a modem.

Baudot
A five level code set named for the early French telegrapher who invented it. International Telegraph Alphabet (ITA) Number 2 is the formal name.

Bias
Communications signal distortion with respect to bit timing.

Bit rate
The rate at which those bits (binary digits) are transmitted over a communications path. Normally expressed in bits per second (BPS). The bit rate is not to be confused with the data signalling rate (baud) which measures the rate of signal changes being transmitted.

Bit stream
Refers to a continuous series of bits being transmitted on a transmission line.

Bit-orientated protocol
Refers to those data communications protocols that move bits across a data link without regard to the meaning of those bits. Nearly all bit-orientated protocols follow the international HDLC recommendations.

Block check character
A single character appended to the end of a data block for error checking purposes. The BCC is usually LRC but could also be checksum results.

Block error rate testing
Testing a data line with groups of information arranged into transmission blocks for error checking.

Block multiplexer channel
a computer peripheral multiplexer channel that interleaves blocks of data. See also byte multiplexer channel. Contrast with selector channel.

Blocking
A condition in a switching system or PABX in which no paths or circuits are available to complete a call and no dial tone is returned to the calling party. In this situation there is no alternative but to hang up and try the call again. Also referred to as a denial or busy condition.

Break
A signal to 'break in' when the opposite party or unit is sending. A feature of dial point-to-point teletypewriter systems operating in half duplex.

Breakout box
A test device utilised for monitoring and inserting signals in the RS-2332 interface. Bridge equipment techniques used to connect circuits and equipment to each other ensuring minimum transmission impairment. Bridging is normally required on multipoint data channels where the drop for the local loop is separated from the circuit that continues on t …

Broadband
Refers to transmission facilities whose bandwidth (range of frequencies that will handle) is greater than that available on voice grade facilities; sometimes called wideband. Also used to describe a particular kind of local area network configuration where multiple different users can share the same cable facility in different channels.

Broadband Transmission
A transmission method where multiple channels are modulated onto separate carrier frequencies. The result is multiple communications channels that occupy specific frequency ranges.

Broadcast
The ability to send messages or communicate with many or all points in a circuit simultaneously.

Burst
A series of events occurring as a group.

Burst error
A series of consecutive errors in data transmission. Refers to the phenomenon on communications lines where errors are highly prone to occurring in groups or clusters.

Bus
Also called a 'Daisy Chain'. A network topology where each node is connected to one another in line. A major disadvantage is that when there is a break in the bus the entire network goes down.

Byte
Some set of contiguous bits that make up a discrete item of information. Bytes are usually 8 bits long.

Byte multiplexor channel
Multiplexer channel that interleaves bytes of data from different sources. Contrasts with selector channel

Cable
A set of insulated wires or conductors within an extruded jacket. Many types of cable utilise shielding around the wires and under the cable jacket.

Cable Assembly
A cable that has been terminated with one or more connectors.

CIT
Computer integrated telephony

Client Server
A network architecture where multiple user workstations (Clients) communicate with backend servers through a network. Clients are fully operating systems that are capable of processing data.

CLLM
Consolidated Link Layer Management (820)

CLNP
Connectionless mode Network (layer) Protocol (SONET).

CMA
Communications Managers Association

CMDR
Command Reject similar to FRMR (HDLC)

CMISE
CMIS Element

CMOT
CMIP over TCP/IP

Coaxial Adapter
A device used to change one connector type to another or one gender to another (ex. BNC to SMA Adapter).

CODEC
An acronym for COder/DECoder. A device used for converting analogue signals to digital signals.

Connector
An electromechanical coupling device that provides an electrical interface that can be mated and unmated.

CONP
Connection Mode Network layer Protocol

Contact
The specific points of contact within a connector. Contacts can be male (pins) or female (sockets.).

Converter
A device used to convert from one transmission media to another (Ex. Fibre/Copper Media Converter). Converters are usually externally powered as they physically 'repeat' or regenerate the signal.

COS
Class of Service

Crimping
A means of securing an electrical contact to a wire using tools that compress the metal contact around the wire.

Crosstalk
When unwanted electromagnetic fields from conductors are transferred into adjacent conductors. Crosstalk is controlled by twisting conductors into a pair or separating/shielding conductors.

CSMA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access

CSPDN
Circuit Switched Public Data Network.

DB25
Code for 25 pin connector specific for RS232 interface.

dBm
Decibel level referenced to 1mW at 1004 Hz into 600 ohms impedance.

dBm0
Power that would be at zero TLP reference level.

DCE
Data Communications equipment

DCE
Digital circuit termination equipment

DDCMP
Digital data Communications message protocol.

Dielectric
The insulating material that separates the centre conductor and the shielding.

Drawing
The mechanical process of making conductors smaller by forcing through dies.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that causes unwanted responses in electronic equipment disrupting the electrical signals.

Ethernet
The most common of the network standards established in the early 1980s by the IEEE committee under standard 802.3. More on what is Ethernet is here.

Extrusion
The mechanical process of coating a wire or group of wires with insulating material

Firewire
history of firewire

Frequency
The number of times a periodic action occurs in one second. Measured in Hertz.

HDMI
HDMI Tutorial

Hub
A network device that receives a signal from one station and retransmits to all other connected stations.

IDC
Insulation Displacement Contact

IEEE 1284
: Also known as a 'parallel printer cable' or 'centronics' cable. It was developed to support higher transmission speeds between computers and parallel printers.

IEEE 1284 EPP
: specification cables giving 1.5Mb bi-directional data transfer at a rate of up to 50 times faster than on normal parallel ports when port is set to EPP mode.

Impedance
The opposition to the flow of alternating or varying current. Measured in Ohms.

Injection Moulding
The process used to inject molten polymer into a mould. Connector backshells are often injection moulded.

Insertion Loss
: See Attenuation

Insulation
A material with very high resistivity used to protect conductors. Insulation is usually extruded over the wire or conductor after the drawing process.

MODEM
An acronym for MOdulate/DEModulate. Modems are data communications devices that convert digital signals to analogue signals for transmission over analogue public telephone networks.

Network Interface Card (NIC)
Network devices that are installed in computers so that they can be connected to a network. Ethernet NICs come in different speeds as well as with connections to different media types.

Node
A device or station connected to a network.

Peer to Peer
A network architecture where computers connect directly with other computers without the need for servers.

Plug
The male connector usually containing a centre pin.

Power Calculation
The following formula is used to calculate wattage (or VA). This formula is useful to determine if a required voltage and current combination will exceed the maximum capacity of a particular AC adapters case.

RCA Connector
See phono

Redundancy
Utilising multiple access methods so that if one goes down the systems still operate.

Repeater
A network device that regenerates the signal to increase a cabling run.

RG11-U Quad-Shield
is used for the same applications as RG6/U for either backbone cabling or for long distribution runs. It features a copper clad steel inner conductor.

RG59U
is available with either solid copper or copper clad steel centre conductor. It is suitable for basic analogue TV antenna feeds in residential applications and for basic CCTV systems over short cable runs. The copper clad steel type has high tensile strength and should be used when terminating the cable with F type connectors.

Ring
A network topology where nodes are connected in a ring. Used in Token Ring and SONET networks.

Server
A computing device that provides a service to users on a network (clients). An example is a file server that stores and maintains documents for retrieval.

Shielding
A conductive foil or braid that covers insulated wires in a cable. The shield provides electrical grounding and protection from external electromagnetic interference (EMI). Shielding is also used to control internal electromagnetic radiation.

Signal
: The signal is the audio or vide information sent down the wire.