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Dundee University - The Urban Conservation Glossary
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Urban conservation
Date & country: 16/01/2008, UK
Words: 258


Specials
bricks which have to be specially made for a specific purpose such as a particular shape of cope.

Spike
A spike is simply a large nail.

Sprag
slang term for a nail.

Springing line
level at which the arch springs from its support.

Sprocket - Cocking pieces
a short timber placed at the foot of a rafter to project over the wall head. See roof.

Staddle Stone Illustration
Staddle Stones supporting a gamelarder. (Detail)

Steading
a group of agricultural buildings.

Stelar vault
a name given to vault where the ribs converge in star - like patterns

Storey posts
the posts used to carry floors in warehouses and mills. The term seems to be more commonly applied to cast iron columns than timber posts.

Streaky bacon
a highly descriptive term originating in Holland for mixing courses of brickwork with courses of limestone.

Stretcher
a brick laid with its long side to the face of the wall.

String
the supports for the steps. See stair.

String Course
a shallow moulding continued across a whole facade which may be defined by its position eg cill or impost course. (Illustration) (Illustration in context)

Stud
any vertical timber in a timber-framed wall or cross frame other than the main or intermediate posts.

Stylobate
the top step of the crepidoma. See Classical Architecture.

Sundials, Gnomon
A sundial works by using an indicator called a gnomon to cast a shadow onto a graduated surface. The origins of this system can be traced back to before the first century BC. Sundials were extremely important for over 1000 years until clocks and watches became accurate and freely available. ...

Sunken Garden
an area of the garden recessed into the ground to create a secluded atmosphere or facilitate a view down onto a feature such as a knot garden .

Swept - catslide Dormer
one formed by sweeping a section of the roof up from the main plane at a slacker pitch; also known as catslide dormer.

Symmetry
symmetry occurs when a building can be split into two mirrored parts.

Tabling
a flat coping usually refers to stones at the wallhead or gable of a building as opposed to a freestanding wall.

Tanking
a waterproof skin applied to the walls and floors of basements to prevent the penetration of groundwater.

Temple
building for worship.

Terrarium
small glazed enclosure containing growing plants.

Theatres Trust
formed in 1976 by act of parliament 'to promote the better protection of theatres for the benefit of the nation'. The trust is a legal consultee for all matters affecting theatres. Along with the RCAHMS it is the only body in Scotland that planning authourities are obliged to consult on matt...

Tie beam
a horizontal beam which joins the feet of the principals at wall head level. See roof.

Toothing - Tusking
hollows left in a brick or stone wall to receive another wall intended to be built into it at a later date.

Torching
filling (from the underside) the uneven spaces between tiles or slates or the gaps between the battens on a roof with a lime mortar to eliminate drafts or the entry of wind blown rain or snow. The practice was largely discontinued because it caused fairly rapid failure of the battens.

Trabeated
architecture which uses a post and beam construction or post-and-lintel construction. (Trabs = Greek for beam) (Illustration) see classical architecture.

Transom
a horizontal bar of stone or wood which separates a window light from a lower light or a door opening. A transom light is a rectangular window above a door. see fanlight

Trellis
a light framework of wood or sometimes iron used to support climbing plants (see Treillage).

Triangulation
using a network of triangles to accurately plot positions. See measured survey.

Triglyph
the blocks with vertical grooves separating the metopes in a doric frieze. Said to represent beam ends. See Classical Architecture.

Trompe l'oeil
decorative painting which suggests three dimensions.

Tron
(Scottish) public weigh beam - very important in the medieval town whose existance often depended on the right to trade.

Truss
name given to rigid frame of principals and tie beams or collar beams. See roof.

Tumbled brickwork-Brick tumbling
occurs on gables where bricks are laid diagonally to form a series of triangles which provide a flat bed for skews.

Turfed seat
raised mound that has been laid with turf to from a seat. Commonly interspersed between the raised flowerbeds in Elizabethan gardens.

Undercloak
the upper edge of a lead sheet which is covered by the overcloak.

Valley
a v-shape formed by the meeting of two roofs.

Value Added Tax
VAT is a wide ranging tax levied on all goods and services. With the exception of domestic fuel (8%) only two rates apply - 17.5% or 0%. The most complex area is the construction industry where there is a huge amount of legislation. The repair and maintenance of ...

Variations
changes in work authorised by the architect. see contracts/contracting.

Verandah
open shelter or gallery around a building with a lean-to roof carried on verticals of timber or iron.

Vermiculated
a tooling on the face of stone which appears as worm tracks. Can carry ghosted outlines eg a face or figure. Similar to frost work

Voussoir
the radiating wedge-shaped blocks forming the arch. (Illustration)

Wagon headed
a term used to describe a semi - cylindrical ceiling.

Wainscotting
the timber lining to walls. Also a method of sawing timber which ensures an even distribution of heartwood and sapwood.

Wardian Case
glazed window box containing growing plants.

Warehouse set
is the term used to describe cement that has set solid in its bag due to being stored in damp conditions.

Water fan
this is the fan-shaped area that water will cover having penetrated the joint between slates. Clearly the calculation of side lap and head lap becomes very important otherwise water can penetrate through to the sarking or battens. (Illustration)

Wet Dash
traditional type of harl in which the aggregate of small evenly sized pebbles is incorporated into the mix.

Wheel Window \ Rose Window
a round window with a central point from which a form of spoke may radiate. A rose window has intricate tracery which may appear as rose petals.

Whiting
Finely powdered chalk (calcium carbonate) - sometimes erroneously used to include gypsum plaster.

Wicket-Pass-Man door
a small door set within a larger door. Sometimes referred to as a pass door or man door.

Wild bond
a term used to describe very random mixtures of headers and stretchers. see brick.

Winder
a tread which is wider at one end. See stair.

Wrestlers
slates which are notched at each side allowing them to interlock to form ridges.

Wynd
narrow secondary street or lane.

York stone
A type of sandstone from the York area which can be easily split along its bedding plane and is widely used for paving.