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Rook Home Inspections LLC - Glossary of domestic engineering
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Home inspection
Date & country: 16/01/2008, UK
Words: 1350


Double Tree
Refers usually to a precast roof deck panel poured with two fins in its underside to impart flexural rigidity.

Double-Glazing
In general, any use of two lights of glass, separated by an air space within an opening to improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound transmission. In insulating glass units, the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space is sealed, eliminating possible condensation and providing superior insulating properties.

Downspout
The pipe that carries water down from the gutter or scupper. Also called a leader.

Draw
The amount of progress billings on a contract that is currently available to a contractor under a contract with a fixed payment schedule.

Drawing Detail
A top view drawing of a building or roof showing the roof perimeter and indicating the projections and roof mounted equipment, drawn to scale.

Drawing Outline
A top view drawing of a building or roof showing only the perimeter drawn to scale.

Dressed Size Lumber
The dimension of lumber after shrinking from green dimension and after machining to size or pattern.

Drier Paint
Usually oil-soluble soaps of such metals as lead manganese or cobalt which, in small proportions, hasten the oxidation and hardening (drying) of the drying oils in paints.

Drip
(a) A member of a cornice or other horizontal exterior finish course that has a projection beyond the other parts for throwing off water. (b) A groove in the underside of a sill or drip cap to cause water to drop off on the outer edge instead of drawing back and running down the face of the building.

Drip Cap
A molding placed on the exterior top side of a door or window frame to cause water to drip beyond the outside of the frame.

Drip Edge
A device designed to prevent water from running back or under an overhang.

Drippage
Bitumen material that drips through roof deck joints, or over the edge of a roof deck.

Drop Siding
Usually ¾ inch thick and 6 and 8 inches wide with tongued-and-grooved or shiplap edges. Often used as siding without sheathing in secondary buildings.

Dropping a Stringer
In carpentry, 'dropping' a stringer refers to cutting short on the bottom of a stairs to allow for thickness of the first tread.

Dry Glazing
Also called compression glazing, a term used to describe various means of sealing monolithic and insulating glass in the supporting framing system with synthetic rubber and other elastomeric gasket materials.

Dry Rot
See Fungal Wood Rot.

Dry Seal
Accomplishment of weather seal between glass and sash by use of strips or gaskets of Neoprene, EPDM, silicone or other flexible material. A dry seal may not be completely watertight.

Dry Sheet
A ply mechanically attached to wood or gypsum decks to prevent asphalt or pitch from penetrating the deck and leaking into the building below.

Dry-In
To make a building waterproof.

Drywall
A gypsum board material used for walls or ceilings.

Drywall Construction
A type of construction in which the interior wall finish is applied in a dry condition, generally in the form of sheet materials or wood paneling as contrasted to plaster.

Drywall Hammer
A special hammer used for nailing up gypsum board. Also known as an ax or hatchet. Edges should be smooth and the corners rounded off. The head has a convex round & checkered head.

Drywall Nail
Nails used for hanging regular drywall that is to be taped and finished later must have adequate holding power and a head design that does not cut the face paper. They must also be of the proper depth to provide exactly 1 inch penetration into the framing member. Nails commonly used are chemically-etched and are designed with a cupped head.

Duct
A cylindrical or rectangular 'tube' used to move air either from exhaust or intake, and for distributing warm air from the heating plant to rooms, or air from a conditioning device or as cold air returns. The installation is referred to as 'duct work.'

Ductwork
A system of distribution channels used to transmit heated or cooled air from a central system (HVAC) throughout a home.

Due-On-Sale
A clause in a mortgage contract requiring the borrower to pay the entire outstanding balance upon sale or transfer of the property.

Dumbwaiter
An elevator with a maximum footage of not more than 9 sq. ft. floor area; not more than 4' headroom and a maximum capacity of 500 lbs. used for carrying materials only.

Dura Board, Dura Rock
A panel made out of concrete and fiberglass usually used as a ceramic tile backing material. Commonly used on bathtub decks. Sometimes called Wonder Board.

Durometer
A gauge to measure the hardness of an elastomeric material.

DWV (Drainage, Waste & Vent)
The pipes in a plumbing system that remove waste water.

Earnest Money
A sum paid to the seller to show that a potential purchaser is serious about buying.

Earthquake Strap
A metal strap used to secure gas hot water heaters to the framing or foundation of a house. It is intended to reduce the chances of having the water heater fall over in an earthquake and causing a gas leak.

Easement
A formal contract which allows a party to use another party's property for a specific purpose, e.g. a sewer easement might allow one party to run a sewer line through a neighbor's property.

Eave
The part of the roof which extends beyond the side wall.

Eaves Flashing
Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water backup.

Edge Clearance
Nominal spacing between the edge of the glass product and the bottom of the glazing pocket (channel).

Edge Grain (Vertical)
Edge-grain lumber has been sawed parallel to the pith of the log and approximately at right angles to the growth rings; i.e., the rings form an angle of 45° or more with the surface of the piece.

Edge Metal
A term relating to brake or extruded metal around the perimeter of a roof.

Edging Strips
Boards nailed along eaves and rakes to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt shingle after cutting back existing wood shingles.

EER
Energy Efficiency Ratio is figured by dividing BTU hours by watts.

Efflorescence
A white powder on the surface of walls due to evaporation of water. It forms on the surface of bricks.

Egress
A means of exiting the home. An egress window is required in every bedroom and basement. Normally a 4x4 window is the minimum size required.

EIFS
Exterior Insulating and Finish System; exterior wall cladding system consisting primarily of polystyrene foam board with a textured acrylic finish that resembles plaster or stucco.

Elastomer
An elastic rubber-like substance, such as natural or synthetic rubber.

Elastomeric
Of or pertaining to any of the numerous flexible membranes that contain rubber or plastic.

Elbow
An angled fitting that alters the direction of the water line.

Electric Lateral
The trench or area in the yard where the electric service line (from a transformer or pedestal) is located, or the work of installing the electric service to a home.

Electric Resistance Coils
Metal wires that heat up when electric current passes through them and are used in baseboard heaters and electric water heaters.

Electrical Entrance Package
The entry point of the electrical power including: (1) the 'strike' or location where the overhead electrical lines connect to the house. (2) The meter which measures how much power is used. (3) The 'panel,' 'circuit breaker box 'or 'fuse box' where the power can be shut off and overload devices such a fuses or circuit breakers and located.

Electrical Rough
Work performed by the Electrical Contractor after the plumber and heating contractor are complete with their phase of work. Normally all electrical wires, and outlet, switch, and fixture boxes are installed (before insulation).

Electrical Trim
Work performed by the Electrical Contractor when the house is nearing completion. The electrician installs all plugs, switches, light fixtures, smoke detectors, appliance 'pig tails', bath ventilation fans, wires the furnace, and 'makes up' the electric house panel. The electrician does all work necessary to get the home ready for and to pass the …

Electrolytic Coupling
A fitting required to join copper to galvanized pipe and gasketed to prevent galvanic action. Connecting pipes of different materials may result in electrolysis.

Elevation
A side of a building.

Elevation Sheet
The page on the blue prints that depicts the house or room as if a vertical plane were passed through the structure.

Ell
See Elbow.

Emissivity
The measure of a surface`s ability to emit long-wave infrared radiation.

EMT (Electrical Metallic Tubing)
Electrical pipe, also called thin-wall conduit, which may be used for both concealed and exposed areas. It is the most common type of raceway used in single family and low rise residential and commercial buildings.

Emulsion
In roofing, a coating consisting of asphalt and fillers suspended in water.

End Dams
Internal flashing (dam) that prevents water from moving laterally within a curtain wall or window wall system.

End Lap
The amount or location of overlap at the end of a roll of roofing felts in the application.

Energy Efficiency Ratio
An air conditioning efficiency rating system which indicates the number of BTU's delivered per watt of power consumed.

Engineering Service
Any professional service or creative work requiring engineering education, training, and experience and the application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences to such professional service or creative work as consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning, design and supervision of construction for the purpos …

Enter
To go into an area to observe all visible components.

Equity
The 'valuation' that you own in your home, i.e. the property value less the mortgage loan outstanding.

Escrow
The handling of funds or documents by a third party on behalf of the buyer and/or seller.

Escutcheon
A trim piece or decorative flange that fits beneath the faucet handle to conceal the faucet stem and the hole in the fixture or wall.

Estimate
The anticipated cost of materials, labor, and associated cost for a proposed construction, repair, or remodeling project.

Estimating
The process of calculating the cost of a project. This can be a formal and exact process or a quick and imprecise process.

Evaluate
To assess the systems, structures or components of a dwelling.

Examine
To visually look. See Inspect.

Excavate
To dig the basement and/or all areas that will need footings/foundations below ground.

Exhaust Fan
Extracts air or excess heat from the interior of a home.

Expansion Coefficient
The amount that a specific material will vary in any one dimension with a change of temperature.

Expansion Joint
A device used to permit a structure to expand or contract without breakage. In residential construction, a bituminous fiber strip used to separate blocks or units of concrete to prevent cracking due to expansion as a result of temperature changes. Also used on concrete slabs.

Expansive Soils
Earth that swells and contracts depending on the amount of water that is present.

Exposed Aggregate
A method of finishing concrete which washes the cement/sand mixture of the top layer of the aggregate - usually gravel. Often used in driveways, patios and other exterior surfaces.

Exposed Aggregate Finish
A method of finishing concrete which washes the cement/sand mixture off the top layer of the aggregate - usually gravel. Often used in driveways, patios and other exterior surfaces.

Exposed Nail Method
Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.

Exposure
The portion of the roofing exposed to the weather after installation.

Exposure I Grade Plywood
Type of plywood approved by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.

Exterior Glazed
Glazing infills set from the exterior of the building.

Exterior Stop
The molding or bead that holds the light or panel in place when it is on the exterior side of the light or panel.

Extras
Additional work requested of a contractor, not included in the original plan, which will be billed separately and will not alter the original contract amount, but increase the cost of building the home.

Extrusion
An item formed by forcing a base metal (frequently aluminum) or plastic, at a malleable temperature, through a die to achieve a desired shape.

Eyebrow
A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from a building wall; Eyebrows are generally located above windows.

Face Brick
Brick made especially for exterior use with special consideration of color, texture and size, and used as a facing on a building.

Face Glazing
A system having a triangular bead of compound applied with a putty knife, after bedding, setting, and clipping the glazing infill in place on a rabetted sash.

Faced Concrete
To finish the front and all vertical sides of a concrete porch, step(s), or patio. Normally the 'face' is broom finished.

Facing Brick
The brick used and exposed on the outside of a wall. Usually these have a finished texture.

Factory Mutual (FM)
Insurance agency that has established stringent guidelines for maximum construction integrity as it relates to fire and environmental hazards. Their specifications have become industry standards.

Fall-Flow
The proper slope or pitch of a pipe for adequate drainage.

Fascia
A flat, horizontal board enclosing the overhang under the eave.

Fasteners
A general term covering a wide variety of screws and nails, which may be used for mechanically securing various components of a building.

Faucet
A device for regulating the flow of a liquid from a reservoir such as a pipe or drum.

Feathering Strips
Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butt edges of old wood shingles to create a level surface when re-roofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called 'horsefeathers.'

Felt
A very general term used to describe composition of roofing ply sheets, consisting of a mat of organic or inorganic fibers either unsaturated, impregnated with asphalt or coal tar pitch, or impregnated and coated with asphalt.

Female IPS
Pipe connection where the threads are on the inside of the fitting. See FIP.

Female Threads
See FIP.

Fenestration
Any glass panel, window, door, curtain wall or skylight unit on the exterior of a building.

Ferrous
Refers to objects made of or partially made of iron, such as ferrous pipe.