Copy of `Seattle Seahawks - Medical glossary`

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Seattle Seahawks - Medical glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Sports related
Date & country: 08/01/2008, USA
Words: 146


Radius
Forearm bone on the thumb side.

Reconstruction
Surgical rebuilding of a joint using natural, artificial or transplanted materials.

Referred Pain
Pain felt in an undamaged area of the body away from the actual injury.

Retraction
The moving of tissue to expose a part or structure of the body.

Rotator Cuff
Comprised of four muscles in the shoulder area that can be irritated by over use. The muscles are the supraspinatus (most commonly injured), infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.

Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome
A microtrauma or overuse injury caused by stress, and the four stages are: 1) Tendinitis with temporary thickening of the bursa and rotator cuff; 2) Fiber dissociation in the tendon with permanent thickening of the bursa and scar formation; 3) A partial rotator cuff tear of less than one centimeter; or 4) A complete tear of one centimeter or more.

Sacrum
Group of five fused vertebrae located just below the lumbar vertebrae of the lower back.

Scapula
Shoulder blade.

Sciatic Nerve
Major nerve that carries impulses for muscular action and sensations between the lower back and thigh and lower leg; it is the longest nerve in the body.

Sciatica
Irritation of the sciatic nerve resulting in pain or tingling running down the inside of the leg.

Shin Splint
A catch-all syndrome describing pain in the shin that is not a fracture or tumor and cannot be defined otherwise.

Sorbothane
An energy absorbing polyurethane utilized in some foot orthotics to absorb shock forces of the foot.

Spasm (Theory)
Muscle soreness induced by exercise; is the result of reduced muscle blood flow, which results in pain.

Spleen
Large, solid organ responsible for the normal production and destruction of blood cells.

Spondylitis
Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.

Sprain
Injury resulting from a stretch or twist of the joint and causes various degrees of stretch or tear of a ligament or other soft tissue at the joint.

Sternum
The breast bone.

Steroids
Any one of a large number of hormone-like substances. See anabolic steroids and cortical steroids.

Strain
Injury resulting from a pull or torsion to the muscle or tendon that causes various degrees of stretch or tear to the muscle or tendon tissue.

Stress Fracture
A hair-line type break in a bone caused by overuse.

Stress X-Ray
A continual X-ray taken when a portion of the body is stressed to its maximum in order to determine joint stability. This is a test utilized in some ankle injuries.

Stretching
Any therapeutic maneuver designed to elongate shortened soft tissue structures and thereby increase flexibility.

Subluxation
Partial dislocation of a joint. The term usually implies that the joint can return to its normal position without formal reduction.

Talus
The ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.

Target Heart Rate
A pre-determined pulse to be obtained during exercise when circulation is working at full efficient capacities.

Tarsals
Group of seven bones of the foot consisting of the calnavicular, talus, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
The articulation of the jaw and skull; considered by some to be vital in resolution of injures throughout the body.

Tendinitis
Inflammation of the tendon and/or tendon sheath, caused by chronic overuse or sudden injury.

Tendon
Tissue that connects muscle to bone.

Tennis Elbow
General term for lateral elbow pain.

Thoracic
Group of twelve vertebrae located in the thorax and articulate with the 12 ribs.

Tibia
Larger of the two bones of the lower leg and is the weight-bearing bond of the shin.

Tomograph
A special type of X-ray apparatus that demonstrates an organ or tissue at a particular depth.

Trachea
The windpipe.

Transverse Process
Small lateral projection off the right side and the left side of each vertebrae that functions as an attachment site for muscles and ligaments of the spine.

Trapezius
Flat triangular muscle covering the posterior surface of the neck and shoulder.

Triceps
Muscle of the back of the upper arm, primarily responsible for extending the elbow.

Ulna
Forearm bone that runs from the tip of the elbow to the little finger side of the wrist.

Ulnar Nerve
Nerve in the elbow commonly irritated from excessive throwing.

Ultrasound
An electrical modality that transmits a sound wave through an applicator into the skin to the soft tissue in order to heat the local area for relaxing the injured tissue and/or disperse edema.

Valgus
Angulation outward and away from the midline of the body.

Varus
Angulation inward and toward the midline of the body.

Vasodilation
Increase of local blood flow.

Vasonconstriction
Decrease of local blood flow.

Wind-Knocked-Out
Syndrome describing a contraction of the abdominal nerve truck, the solar plexus, as a result of an abdominal contusion.

Zygoma
The cheekbone.