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Print Technology Warehouse - Printing glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Printing
Date & country: 15/12/2007, UK
Words: 1580


HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocaol; request-response protocol, the language spoken between the browser (client software) and the web server (server software) so they can communicate with each other and exchange files.

Hue
Unique distinguishing characteristics between colours as identified by name - for example cyan, magenta, red, blue, or green - as distinct from their brightness or saturation.

Hydropulper
Hydropulper equipment used to slurry pulp. Water is added to dry pulp and fillers, and agitated until the mixture becomes about the consistency of oatmeal cereal.

Hypertext links
A link that permits you jump to areas on the same page, different pages in the same site or a different site by clicking on a word or graphic.

Hyphenation
Breaking of words into syllables separated by hyphens. Impedes readability but is usually necessary to maintain even right margins and text colour in fully justified type.

Icons
Graphic elements used instead of something else, typically words or commands. Also Graphic representations of links to locations in a Web site. Icons visually reflect the purpose of the link, such as a house to represent the Home page. In computer operating systems they are pictorial images on the screen indicating functions, files, folders or appl…

ID
Inside diameter.

Idler rolls
Roller mechanisms on converting machines used to support, smooth or direct the web in its course of travel through a machine. Not driven.

Illustrator
An individual who draws or paints images for use in commercial art. Many new tools allow a variety of expressions with traditional media or new computer enhanced illustration techniques.

Imagesetter
A high-resolution device that prints directly to plate ready film. Many image setters output film at 2400 DPI (dots per inch).

Imagesetting
Imagesetting is the new word for phototypesetting. Today's imagesetters do more than just set type: they set images and graphics, as well, through PostScript, the standard for controlling laser printers. Most imagesetters were designed to be used in digital pre-press and are capable of reproducing colour photographs and graphics in great detail. Th…

Impact Printing
Any printing systems where a micro processor controlled drives a ribbon into contact with the print surface (dot matrix) or the print surface into contact with the ribbon drum printer).

Imposition
The arrangement of pages on a printed sheet which - when the sheet is finally printed on both sides, folded and trimmed - places the pages in the correct order ensuring the text reads continuously.

Impress
A page description language developed by Imagen and supported by over 60 software products including Crystal, TeX, Superpage and AutoCAD. Almost certainly the first commercially available PDL.

Impression
The image transferred from the printing plate to the substrate or the adjustment required to affect the same.

Impression cylinder
The cylinder of a printing machine which brings the paper into contact with the printing plate or blanket cylinder.

Imprimatur
'Let it be printed' Latin. In early works it was the statement indicating that the publication was authorised by the appropriate authority.

Imprint
Required by law if the book is to be published. Shows printer's name, location and date of publication.

Imprinting
Technique which applies variable copy to blank or pre-printed labels with a secondary device.

In-line press
A press coupled to another operation such as sheeting, die-cutting, creasing, etc. A multi-colour press in which the colour stations are mounted horizontally in a line.

In-mold labels (IML)
Special type of labels which are pre-applied to plastic bottles during the blow-molding operation.

Incanabula
Refers to printed material produced before 1500.

Inch
A unit of measurement equal to six (6) picas or seventy two (72) points.

Included Angle
The included angle is double the cutting angle.

Indentation
Refers to any measure short of the column width.

InDesign
The next-generation desktop publishing program from Adobe. See PageMaker, QuarkXPress.

Index holes
See feed slots.

Index Paper
A stiff, inexpensive paper with a smooth finish. The high bulk but low weight of this paper makes it a popular choice for business reply cards. The basic size of index paper is 25.5'x30.5'.

Index punch
See feed slots.

India paper
Thin strong paper used for Bibles and dictionaries.

Infeed nip
A mechanism designed to control the forward travel of the web into the press.

Inferior letters
Those printed below the base line, as in chemical formulae.

Information Architecture
The design of the hierarchy of Web site around information delivery and usability.

Infrared
The band of light wavelengths too long to be seen by the human eye. Represented by waves that are between 750 and 4 million nanometers.

Ingredients of Paper
All the materials used to make the mat of fibers known as paper. The one essential ingredient is cellulose fiber. The rest of the ingredients enhance the paper adding body, reducing cost, or changing colour.

Initial Track
Adhesives usually have two adhesive stages: (1) Initial tack at which time it is sticky enough to hold parts together; (2) Set at which point the adhesives has firmly bonded them.

Injection Blow Molding
A molding procedure whereby a heat-softened plastic is forced from a cylinder into a relatively cool cavity that gives the article the desired shape.

Ink
Colour, other than the colour of the paper, is produced by ink. Colour printing falls into three broad categories: SPOT colour, using pre-mixed inks - e.g. PANTONE, the advantage is the precise control available as they are specified in swatch books. PROCESS colour work - four-colour process, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. A combination of Spot a…

Ink Absorption
Capacity to accept or absorb ink.

Ink Holdout
Resistance to the penetration of ink. Coated papers tend to have good ink holdout. The ink pigments sit on the surface of the coating, and are not absorbed into the spaces between the paper fibers. This minimizes dot spread and results in a sharp image. Uncoated papers tend to absorb ink into the sheet, but printers can compensate for this and stil…

Ink Jet
A method of printing using liquid ink projected a drop at a time against a substrate.

Ink jet printer
A printer that sprays ink in a precise pattern on the page to achieve its output.

Inline graphic
A graphic that is locked to text so that it moves as preceding text is edited or deleted. Useful for captions, as they will not become separated from the picture.

Insert
An instruction to the printer for the inclusion of additional copy.

Insertion point
Blinking vertical line indicating where the next keystroke will add or delete text.

Intaglio
A method of printing in which an image or letter is cut into the surface of wood or metal, creating tiny wells. Printing ink sits in these wells, and the paper is pressed onto the plate and into the wells, picking up the ink.

Interface
The circuit, or physical connection, which controls the flow of data between a computer and its peripherals.

Interlacing
Progressive display of a graphic in increasing detail as it downloads.

Interleaved bar code
A bar code in which characters are paired using bars to represent the first character and spaces to represent the second.

International paper sizes
The International Standards Organisation (ISO) system of paper sizes is based on a series of three sizes A, B and C. Series A is used for general printing and stationery, Series B for posters and Series C for envelopes.

Internegative
Photographic negative from which a print or transparency is made.

Internet
Or the Net, worldwide system of computer networks allowing one computer to get information from another, with permission. Conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) - a US Government initiative - in 1969. The original aim was to create a network for university departments to communicate research material.

Interpolation
The estimation of a value between two known values and the resulting colour value that is assigned to a pixel. This is what a programme like Photoshop does when an image is enlarged. It makes an educated guess at what the colour should be based on the surrounding pixels.

Interpress
Xerox Corporation's page description language which was the first such product to be implemented. At present the language still has to be adopted commercially by a third party.

Intranet
An internal web site for the use of a company, usually password protected. Used to disseminate internal information such as stock levels and availability.

IP
Internet Protocol; implements the network layer (layer 3) of the protocol, which contains a network address and is used to route a message to a different network or sub network. Plus, accepts ‘packets` from the layer 4 transport protocol (TCP or UDP), adds its own header to it and delivers a ‘datagram` to the layer 2 data link protocol.

ISBN
International Standard Book Number. A reference number given to every published work. Usually found on the back of the title page.

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network: Internet connection at higher speeds than normal phone lines.

ISP
Internet Service Provider - whose function is to host websites for clients, provide email facilities and access to the WWW for people to browse. For hosting purposes the ISP provides specialised, fast computers, and allocates space on a rental basis. Some ISPs try to be all things to all people, others specialise and only host Web sites, providing …

Italic
Type with sloping letters.

Ivory board
A smooth high white board used for business cards etc.

Jacket
The cover in which a hardback book is sold.

Java script
An active script that is incorporated with the HTML of a web site. It controls such functions as rollovers.

Jaw folder
Mechanism on a web press that folds paper into signatures.

JDF
JDF stands for Job Definition Format and is an industry standard designed to simplify information exchange between different applications and systems in and around the graphic arts industry. JDF builds on and extends beyond pre-existing partial solutions, such as CIP3's Print Production Format (PPF) and Adobe Systems' Portable Job Ticket Format (PJ…

JMF
JMF is part of the JDF specification. JMF allows a controller to communicate to a JDF MIS or workflow system information, such as events (start, stop, error), status (available, offline, stalled, etc.), results (count, waste, etc.), and other details, such as who is the current operator.

Jog
To shake a stack of papers, either on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up. Printers jog the paper to get rid of any dust or particles, and to ensure proper feeding into the press.

Jogging
Vibrating paper stock in order to bring the edges into line prior to trimming. A jogger may be attached to a printing press binder or be a separate unit.

Journals
The end shafts on which a roll rotates, usually within the needle bearing or busing of a die block.

JPEG
Acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group. C-Cube Microsystems designed it. It is a lossy form of compression, meaning that it looses information in the compression. It works by averaging areas of adjacent pixels. Ideal for Web use as it handles continuous tone and subtle shifts in colour and tone sensitive subject matter well and produces v…

Justification
The horizontal positioning of text relevant to the margins. Text can be Left Justified, Centre Justified, Right Justified, or Fully Justified. Centre and Full Justification are the most frequently used in the awards industry.

Justify
The alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary so that each line of text finishes at the same point.

Keep standing
To hold type or plates ready for reprints.

Kenaf
A plant fiber sometimes used to produce paper.

Kerning
The adjustment of the lateral space between letters.

Kerning pairs
E.g. A and V, T and A, to obtain a more aesthetic appearance and improve legibility and readability. There is auto -kerning where the software arbitrarily decides on the kerning and optical kerning when an operator manually kerns the pair via the keyboard.

Key mark or trigger
A code bit(s) that tells the scanner if the code is in a position to be read; used with some fixed beam readers.

Keyline
An outline drawn or set on artwork showing the size and position of an illustration or halftone.

Kilobyte
1024 bytes, a binary 1,000.

Kiss cut
To die cut a label so that the backing sheet remains intact and the waste is removed - leaving the label on the backing sheet ready to be peeled off.

Kiss impression
Impression in which ink is put on paper by the lightest possible surface contact and not impressed into it. This technique is necessary when printing on coated papers.

Knife cut labels
See butt cut labels.

Knocking up
The adjustment on one or two sides of a block of paper to align them for cutting.

Kraft paper
A tough brown paper manufactured using kraft pulp, usually noted for its strength. In the kraft pulping process, fiber is separated from lignin by cooking wook chips with steam and pressure.

Label
The functional portion of a pressure-sensitive construction compromising the face material and adhesive, die cut into various shapes.

Label stock
Pressure-sensitive laminate, from which labels are produced, usually refers to roll stock.

Labelling machine
Dispensing apparatus that, by means of driving or pulling the backing, delivers a pressure-sensitive label and applies it to a product.

Lacquer (1)
Clear protective coating for paper that renders a high gloss.

Lacquer (2)
A clear or coloured coating applied to the finished surface of many engraving metals.

Laid
Paper with a watermark pattern showing the wire marks of the mold or dandy roll used in the paper making process. Usually used for high quality stationery.

Laid Finish
A paper with a translucent pattern of lines running both parallel to, and across the grain. Laid finished paper like dropping a patterned dandy roll onto the paper machine while the paper is still wet creates Champion Mystique.

Laminant
An adhesive for combining and bonding a combination of films, foils, plastics, papers or other materials. Pressure-sensitive constructions are often called laminants.

Laminate
Thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide protection and give it either a gloss or matt finish.

Laminate (Engraving Stock)
A material manufactured by fusing two or more layers together to form one solid sheet.

Lamination
A plastic film bonded by heat, adhesive, and/or pressure to a printed web for protection or appearance. Two or more materials bonded together functioning as one.

LAN
Local Area Network; communications network serving users in a confined geographical area, made up of servers, workstations, network operating system and communications link.

Landscape
Work in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations that are printed 'sideways'.

Lap
Slight overlapping of two printed colours to ensure there is no fault in registration. More commonly referred to as Trap, Trapping.

Laser Compatible
Paper that performs on a laser printer or copier. Laser compatible paper has good dimensional stability that keeps it from curling, changing shape, and causing paper jams in printers and copiers. All of the premium writing grades that Champion manufactures are laser compatible.

Laser engraving
Engraving process done by laser, evaporating the paper rather than cutting it.