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Print Technology Warehouse - Printing glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Printing
Date & country: 15/12/2007, UK
Words: 1580


DPI (dot per inch)
The number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into a one- inch measure. Generally, the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the resulting image. See also halftone, lines per inch, screen.

Drawdown
The smear of ink produced by a smooth blade on paper. Used to check quality and tone of the colour on the paper stock to be printed on. Also checks chemical reaction of ink to paper.

Drawn on
Binding a paper cover to a book by drawing the cover on and gluing to the back of the book.

Dreamweaver
A WYSIWYG web page editor from Macromedia. Competitor with GoLive, from Adobe.

Driers
Usually metallic salts that speed ink drying.

Driving side
That side of a flexographic press on which the main gear train(s) are located. Also gear side; opposite of the operator side.

Drop cap
An initial letter covering two or three lines of text type. Can be decorative.

Drop cap
A large initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the line or lines of text below.

Drop folio
Page numbers at the foot of a page.

Dropout halftone
Halftone with no dots in the highlight areas.

Dry End
The drying section of the papermaking machine, after the press section, at which point most water has been removed from the paper. As paper moves through the dry end, the drying process is completed and the paper reel is wound.

Dry litho
Offset litho plate that does not need dampening to keep the ink to its image area.

Dry transfer (lettering)
Characters, drawings, etc, that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet. Best known is Letraset. Superseded by and large by graphics packages on computers.

Dry Trap
A layer of wet ink being applied over a previous layer of dry ink in a separate run of the printing press. Dry trapping usually produces sharper images than wet trapping because prior wet or damp layers don`t dilute subsequent layers of ink. Dry trap- ping is also more expensive because the paper travels through the press more than once.

Drying
The step in the papermaking process that brings the moisture content of paper to approximately 5%. Moving the web of paper around a series of heated iron drums in the dry end of the paper machine does this. see also dry end, papermaking.

Dryography
Waterless offset lithography. This printing process is able to use extremely fine line screens to produce high-resolution printing.

Duct
The ink reservoir on a press.

Dull Coated
A coated paper finish that falls between glossy and matte.

Dummy
A complete layout, often run out as a Colour Laser Copy (CLC), with all pictures, illustrations and text in place, to size. This is used primarily to sell the concept to the client. Also known as a layout or a mock-up.

Dummy Text
See Placeholder Text.

Duotone
A two-colour halftone of the same images created with two screens, two plates, and two colours. Most halftones are one-colour halftones, printed with black ink on white paper. By blending the black of the tiny ink dots and the white of the paper, the human eye sees shades of grey. Printing an image with two colours, generally black and a second col…

Dust
Dust tiny, free pieces of fiber, filler, and/or coating on paper. During printing, dust may adhere to the blanket and create imperfections by not allowing ink to reach the paper surface.

DVD
Digital video disc, holds 4.7Gb as opposed to the 650Mb of a CD

DWELL (Residence Time)
(1) The time during which P.S. material remains on a surface before testing for permanence or removability. (2) The time during which a hot-stamp, embossing, head, or thermal die remains in contact with the surface of a P.S. material.

DXF
AutoCAD format for line art.

Dye sublimination transfer
A photographic colour print using special coated papers to produce a full colour image. Can serve as an inexpensive proof.

DYE TEST
See die stain.

Edge Curl
The peeling back or lifting of the outer edge of a tape that has been applied in a curve.

Edge Lift
The tendency of the edge of a label to rise off the surface of the substrate. This condition occurs most frequently on small diameter curved surfaces. Resistance to edge life is dependent on the bond strength of the adhesive and the flexibility of the face stock.

EDM
Electronic Discharge Machining Process for removing metal - as in rotary dies.

EDM DIE
Die produced using Electronic Discharge Machining.

EDP
Electronic Data Processing - Pressure sensitive labels, usually blank, for use on computer printing equipment. Webs are usually perforated, fan folded and hole-punched (“line holes�) for pinwheel feeding.

EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)
A graphics standard for the PC which can be added or built into a system to give sharper characters and improved colour with the correct display device. Standard EGA resolution is 640 by 350 dots in any 16 out of 64 colours.

Egyptian
A term for a style of type faces having heavy slab serifs and almost uniform thickness of strokes.

Eight sheet
A poster measuring 60 x 80in (153 x 203cm) traditionally made up of eight individual sheets.

Electro-photography
A printing process that uses principles of electricity and electrically charged particles to create images. In photocopiers and laser printers, electric charges create the image on an electro-photographic surface that works as a printing plate. This surface is cleared after each image or copy is made, and is used over again for the next copy.

Electronic Data Processing
Data processing by electronic equipment. Pressure sensitive labels produced for imprinting on this equipment incorporate line hole punching and perforations.

Electronic Printing
A printing method that creates images using electrostatic charges, rather than by pressing ink onto a plate. Photocopiers and inkjet or laser printers use electronic printing.

Electronic Publishing
A generic term for the distribution of information, which is stored, transmitted and reproduced electronically. Teletext and Videotext are two examples of this technology in its purest form, i.e. no paper. Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format) is becoming the de facto standard. The Internet is a prime example of electronic publishing. Also books on …

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)
The more common name for molecular chlorine free, and a bleaching that doesn`t use chlorine gas. Champion is a leader in ECF technology, using chlorine dioxide rather than elemental chlorine in the pulp and bleaching processes.

Ellipsis
Three dots that are a single character, not three periods. Will not break on a return. Option; on a Mac.

Elliptical dots
Elongated dots that improve the gradation of tones in middle tones and vignettes in halftone photography.

Elongation
The distance a material will stretch lengthwise before breaking, expresses as a percentage of original length. Elongation is not necessarily an indication of conformability.

Em
In printing terms it is a square unit with edges equal in size to the chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M that originally was as wide as the type size. Also 12 points of linear measurement.

Em-dash
A dash used in punctuation the length of one em. Used in place of a pair of commas to set off a non-essential comment in a sentence.

Em-space
A lateral space equal to the width of the lower case letter 'm'. Likewise, En space is the space of the lower case 'n'. Used in typography and typesetting.

Emboss
A process by which a dye is used for raising an area of paper to create letterforms, shapes and textures. The dye can be made of magnesium, which is created from exposing light to the magnesium and leaving only the form of the artwork to be pressed into paper, or brass which is hand done, is more expensive but looks very good with bevelled edges an…

Embossed Finish
Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather or other pattern.

Embossing
A finishing process that impresses a raised image on the surface of the paper by a die striking from beneath the paper into a counter die above the paper.

Emulsion
The chemically treated side of photographic film. (The dull side not the shiny side.) Depending on the printing process involved, film will be requested usually as 'right reading emulsion down'.

Emulsion side
Side of photographic film coated with silver halide emulsion.

En
A unit of measurement that is half as wide as an em.

En-dash
A dash approximately half the width of an em dash. Used to indicate a range; e.g. 6­12 without spaces, and with spaces either side as a minus sign.

En-space
Space one-half the width of an em-quad.

Enamel
A general term referring to coated paper that has a higher basis weight than coated publication (magazine) paper, but a lower basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper. An example of enamel is Champion Kromekote Enamel.

Encryption
To obscure a message in order to disguise its meaning.

End clearance angle
The end clearance angle is the angle on the backside of the tip angle to provide clearance.

End mill
Usually a multi-fluted cutting tool generally used in machining operations. While some have straight flutes, most are spiralled and are used for heavy cuts at low speeds.

End papers
The four page leaves at the front and end of a book that are pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).

Engraving
A printing process using intaglio, or recessed plates. Made from steel or copper, engraving plates cost more than plates used in most other printing processes, such as lithography. Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts force on the paper, pushing it into the wells and onto the ink. The pressure creates raised l…

Envelope
Paper that is folded and glued in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, for containing letter of other materials. Many printing jobs will end up in an envelope. The closer a finished piece is to an envelope size, the easier it will be to mail and the less chance it will be damaged by jostling around inside the envelope. An envelope maker can make jus…

EPS (EPSF)
Encapsulated Postscript File. A vector based, computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems. EPS is the preferred format for many computer illustrations, because of its efficient use of memory and fine colour control. The artwork description is 'plotted' by the computer. Example: point 'A' has a line that goes to point 'B' then continues…

Epson emulation
Epson and virtually all software packages developed the industry standard control codes for dot matrix printers and most dot matrix printers either follow or improve on these codes.

Erratum
Author's or printer`s error, discovered after the book has been printed.

Esparto
A long rough grass with soft, fine fibers. Grows in southern Spain and in North Africa - it makes an excellent long grain stable paper.

Estimating
To calculate the costs of a job.

Etch
To use acid to dissolve any non-printing portion of a printing plate.

Ethernet
The industry standard for networking computers using co-axial cables. Multiple computers and peripheral devices such as printers are connected to a hub with a number of ports.

Even pages
Those on the left side have even numbers.

Exception dictionary
In word processing or desktop publishing this is a store of pre-hyphenated words that do not conform to the usual rules contained in the hyphenation and justification program (H & J). Some programs, PageMaker for example, only use an exception dictionary.

Expanded type
A typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatter, oblong appearance.

Exposure
Illumination of light-sensitive material or a measure of of time and intensity of illumination.

Exposure Temperature
The temperature that a labelled product is exposed to.

Express
A printer control language developed by OASYS.

Eyemark
A small rectangular printing area usually located near the edge of a web or design, to activate an automatic electronic position regulator for controlling register or the printed design with subsequent equipment or operations.

Face
An abbreviation for typeface referring to a family in a given style.

Face Material
Any paper, film, fabric, laminate or foil material suitable for converting into pressure sensitive label stock. In the finished construction, this web is bonded to the adhesive layer and becomes the functional part of the construction.

Face slit
A slit in the face material of a pressure sensitive product to facilitate removal from the backing.

Face split
See face slit.

Face-cut label
Any pressure sensitive label where the face material is cut to the liner.

Facestock
Any material, including paper, film, fabric, laminated or solid foil, suitable for converting into PS label stock.

Facsimile transmission-fax
The conversion of scanned graphic images or type into electronic signals that are transmitted into a recorded likeness of the original at another location.

Faded colour
Colour lost (usually in large solids or solid tints) during drying or when the printed sheet is exposed to light.

Fan Fold
Zigzag fold. The put-up of pressure-sensitive labels on a continuous backing in such a way as to form a flat pack as different from roll form.

FAQ
Frequently asked questions posted on websites to answer common/repetitive questions.

Fatty
A photographic internegative mask used to enlarge copy slightly to allow for exact registration of butted elements by lapping one over the other.

Feathering
Ink spread at edges of type due to the poor quality of ink or its distribution.

Feed slots
Round or rectangular holes or slits put in pressure sensitive label stock to maintain the register of pressure sensitive labels while they are being printed or imprinted.

Feint rules
Pale blue lines printed on a page, which act as a guide for handwriting.

Felt
A fabric of natural or synthetic fibers used in the press section of a papermaking machine to absorb water from the paper as it is manufactured.

Felt Finish
A soft texture that affects the look but not the strength of an uncoated paper. A felt finish can be created at the wet end during the papermaking process in one of two ways; either with a roll that is covered with a felt, or with a rubber roll with a felt-patterned finish. An embossed felt finish is created off the machine, after the paper has dri…

Felt Side
The top side of the paper, which comes in contact with the dandy roll and felts during the papermaking process. The bottom side of the paper, which comes in contact with the wire (forming fabric) or the papermaking machine, is called the wire side. The felt side of a paper may appear to be softer, while the wire side of a paper may have more 'tooth…

Fenchel Tester
Device for ascertaining the comparative stability of two papers when wet.

Fiber
Filaments of plant tissue, such as cotton fiber and wood fiber. Some specialty papers may contain synthetic fibers, such as rayon or nylon.

Fiber-added Paper
Paper with visible fibers, flecks, and specks. The term may be a bit misleading because all paper is made from fiber. The most common fiber additives are wood chips, coloured cotton fibers, and coloured rayon fibers.

Filler (1)
Materials like clay added to pulp before it's formed into paper. Fillers improve a sheet's smoothness, brightness, and affinity for ink.

Filler (2)
Extra material used to complete a column or page, usually of little importance.

Filling In
A condition when ink fills in the space between halftone dots and also fills in type.

Fills
Backgrounds created using crosshatch patterns, imported bit-mapped graphics, or transitions from one colour to another.

Film assembly
See Stripping.