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Print Technology Warehouse - Printing glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Printing
Date & country: 15/12/2007, UK
Words: 1580


Bastard
Any non-standard paper size.

Batch file
See Macro.

Beard
The area of a lower case character into which the descenders extend.

Bearer
Type-high supports mounted or molded around each end of printing plate to help carry part of the impression load and to help prevent bounce. Also the load bearing surface(s) of a rotary die, usually positioned at each end of the die.

Bearing block
A device that holds the die in place in the die station.

Bed
The base holding the Forme in Letterpress printing.

Bevel
A sloped edge that runs from the top to the bottom of a nameplate's edges providing a bordering effect.

Bezier curve
A mathematically created curved line in graphics programmes and in QuarkXpress 4x. A curved line has a minimum of three anchor points, one at each end and the one defining the curvature. The curvature can be altered and adjusted by the use of handles. File size in Vector format is very small.

Bi-directional read
The ability to read data successfully whether scanning is done left to right or right to left.

Biax
Biaxially oriented material, that is, oriented in the machine and transverse directions.

Bible paper
Very thin, strong opaque paper used for Bibles and Prayer books.

Binary
The fundamental 2-digit system all computers use (made up of the two Bits, 1 or 0, the smallest unit of information a computer can process) to perform calculations and store and retrieve data.

Binding
Various methods used to fasten the loose leaves or sections in a magazine, report or book using staples, thread or glue; e.g. saddle-stitch, perfect bound.

Bit depth
Number of bits used to store pixel information - higher the bit depth the more specific colour information that can be stored and the larger the file size. An 8-bit image is 2 to the power of 8 which is 256 colours. 24-bit will yield 16.7 million colours.

Bitmap
An image in Bitmap mode is 1 bit, i.e. Black and White. Most often refers solid black line art. A TIF Bitmap imported into Quark can be coloured. As they are not hafltoned they give fine, crisp edges and they must be saved with a resolution of 1,200 ppi. All resolution dependent, pixel based images are bitmaps.

Black letter
An angular script developed in Germany in the 12th Century, also refers to the types developed from it - Fraktur, Gothic and Old English.

Black patch
Material used to mask the window area on a negative image of the artwork prior to 'stripping in' a halftone.

Black point
The point on a scanned image deemed to be the darkest, and set to a CMYK value - C80, M80, Y80 K70 works well.

Blade-coating
A method of coating paper and paperboard using a flexible blade to control the amount of coating applied to the paper. The coating is made of pigments, additives, and adhesives. Blade coating can take place either on the papermaking machine or on an off-machine coater. While paper may be coated on one side (C1S) or both sides (C2S), blade-coated pa…

Blanket
A sheet made from rubber or rexine that is clamped around a blanket or impression cylinder on an offset press, it receives the image from the plate and transfers it to the paper.

Blanket cylinder
The cylinder of an offset press holding the blanket.

Blanket-to-blanket press
See Perfecting press.

Bleaching
A chemical treatment used to whiten and purify pulp. Bleached pulp is known for being strong and durable.

Bleed
In layout: type or pictures extending beyond the trim marks of a page. Illustrations or photos (“Pics�) that spread, without margins, to the edge of the paper are referred to as “bled off�. Those that spread into the central spine area are “bleeding into the gutter�.

Bleedthrough
Migration of materials from an adhesive or substrate into a face material, resulting in a mottled appearance of the face stock and possible detrimental effects to the adhesive.

Blind Embossing
Stamping raised letters or images into paper using pressure and a die, but without using foil or ink to add colour to the raised areas. Braille is an example of blind embossing.

Blinding
The poor surface condition of an apparently sound printing plate causing a substandard image.

Blocking
Condition where the labels in a roll of material stick to the backside of the liner above them. Usually due to adhesive cold flow, incomplete die cutting of the adhesive, improper drying of inks or improper drying of coatings.

Blocking in
To roughly sketch in the main areas of an image prior to the design.

Blow up
An enlargement, usually of a graphic or photograph.

Blue, blue line, blueprint
A low-quality but effective, cheap proof used to proof films, particularly spot colour jobs, ensuring all elements are in place. Also known as a dyeline.

Blurb
A short description on a book jacket about the contents of a book or about the author.

BMP
A computer graphics format 'Bitmap IBM format' not generally used in professional printing.

Board
Paper of 200gsm and heavier.

Body
The main part of a book excluding preliminary pages and appendices.

Body copy, body matter, body type
Referring to text rather than the headline or display copy- usually six to 14 point type.

Body size
The height - or as some say the depth - of type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. Normally given in points, the standard unit of type size.

Boilerplate
Boilerplate items usually refer to large sections of standard text, such as might be found in legal documents, as opposed to a corporate logo or masthead, or to a template which is a fixed way of laying out graphic and text elements in repetitively produced documents.

Bold type
Type with a heavier, darker appearance.

Bolts
The three folded edges of sheet or section that will be trimmed off.

Bond
The adhesion of a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape to the surface to which it has been applied.

Bond paper
A sized finished writing paper generally of 80gsm characterized by its durability, strength and permanence. Useful for letterheads, business forms etc.

Bonding Strength
The internal strength of a paper; the ability of the fibers within a paper to hold to one another. Bonding strength measures the ability of the paper to hold together on the printing press. Good bonding strength prevents fibers from coming loose ('picking').

Book dummy
A bound, limp proof showing a book in page form, useful to determine bulk.

Book paper
A classification of papers suitable for book printing.

Border
A decorative continuous design or rule that surrounds the material on a page.

Bottom-loading Cutters
Cutters inserted into the bottom of the spindle and are held in place by a setscrew or a collet.

Box
A section of text marked off by rules on all four sides or white space and presented separately from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections in magazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.

Brass
A metal alloy made up of copper and zinc, commonly used as an engraving material or in the manufacture of engravable gift items. Most often recognised by its natural yellow-gold colour, brass is also available in a variety of lacquered colours. Brass that contains a higher lead content is referred to a 'leaded' brass or engravers brass. This is sof…

Brightness
Brilliance or light reflectivity characteristic of a particular printing paper. If paper lacks brightness it will absorb too much light, so little will reflect back through the ink.

Bristol board
A fine board made in various qualities for illustration.

Bristol Paper
Solid or laminated heavyweight paper made to a caliper thick- ness of .006' or higher. Bristols are generally used for tags, covers, and file folders and have a basic size of 24.5'x30.5'.

Broadband
Any transmission system combining multiple signals - text, voice, and video - on a single circuit at the same time.

Broadside
Printed sheet of paper used for large advertising circulars and newspapers. Usually printed on one side only.

Brochure
Pamphlet or other unbound short work, sometimes with stitched pages - generally associated with advertising material.

Bromide
A photographic print made on bromide paper.

Bronzing
A lustre effect produced by dusting wet sizing ink with a metallic powder.

Browser
Program used to locate and displays HTML documents.

Browser caching
Browsers store (cache) recently used pages on a user`s hard drive. If site revisited, browsers display pages from cache instead of requesting them from the server. Servers can, therefore, under-count number of pages viewed.

Bulk
The thickness of a stack of paper, technically measured as the thickness of a specified number of sheets under a specified pressure. For example, using the measurement of an inch, it may take less that 100 bulky bristol sheets to make an inch- deep pile. On the other hand, it might take hundreds of sheets to make an inch of a lower-bulk text paper.…

Bulk of paper
See Caliper. Also the thickness of a book without covers.

Bull`s eye
Imperfection in the printing process, caused by hard particles in the ink, paper and atmospheric dust or dirt on the plate or blanket. A.k.a. hickey, fisheye, Newton`s rings.

Bullet
A dot adding emphasis to the text that follows can be small or large.

Burn (1)
The exposure of a plate in plate making.

Burn (2)
To expose photosensitive media to light. I.e. burning a negative or burning a printing plate. Also, to doge and 'burn' a photo print (makes the image darker in an area that is burned, ads detail to lightly exposed areas)

Burn out
Removing unwanted images in plate making with an opaque mask.

Burnishing
A method of engraving on metal that allows for wider line widths than diamond engraving without having to rout deeply into the material. It is a surface technique generally done on coated metals such as lacquered brass. A faceted, rotating tool called a burnisher removes the lacquer coating and exposes the bare metal.

Bursting Perf
A fold perforation that permits mechanical bursting.

Bursting Strength
The pressure required to rupture a material specimen when it is tested in a specified instrument under specified conditions. It is largely determined by the tensile strength and extensibility of the material.

Bus
The wiring that communicates information from one part of a computer to another.

Butt
When two or more elements on a page touch edge to edge - butt registration has no trapping.

Butt Cut Labels
Labels separated by a single cross-direction cut to the liner. No matrix area exists between labels. Butt cut labels are not suitable for automatic dispensing.

Butt Labels
See butt cut labels.

Butt Roll
See stub roll.

Butted Rectangles
Die cut rectangles butted to each other with no around and/or across matrix to remove.

Calcium Carbonate
CaCO3, a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of sources, including chalk, limestone, marble, oyster shells, and scale from boiled hard water. Used as filler in the alkaline paper manufacturing process, calcium carbonate improves several important paper characteristics, like smoothness, brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink; it also…

Calendered finish
Produced by passing paper through a series of metal rollers to give a very smooth surface.

Calendering
The process of finishing a sheet of dried paper by pressing it between the highly polished metal cylinders of a calenar 'stack'. The calender smoothes the paper by compression. See also finish, papermaking, smoothness, super-calendering.

Caliper
The thickness of a single sheet of paper, as measured with a sensitive tool called a micrometer, and expressed in units of thousandths of an inch. Caliper is a critical measure of uniformity. Excessive variation in caliper can lead to print variation, undesirable visual effects, and uneven stretch or press-feeding problems. It can also create probl…

Calligraphy
From the Greek meaning beautiful writing.

Camera-ready Artwork
Black and white artwork that contains no imperfections or irregularities and is ready to be reproduced. This type of artwork provides the best results when reproducing imagery for hot stamping, sublimation, screen printing, digitising or scanning.

Cap Layer
The top or outer surface layer of engraving plastic.

Cap line
An imaginary line across the top of capital letters. The distance from the cap line to the baseline is the cap size.

Cap or caps
An abbreviation for capital letters.

Caps and small caps
A style of type that shows capital letters used in the normal way while the body copy is set in capital letters which are of a slightly smaller size.

Caption
Incorrect use describes the line or lines of text that describe and run under a picture or illustration. Pedantically it is a headline above an illustration that serves the same purpose.

Carbide
An extremely hard material manufactured primarily from tungsten and cobalt. Its hardness and abrasion resistance qualities make it suitable for a variety of cutting tool and wear part applications. Carbide is generally recommended for the majority of engraving cutter applications due to its toughness and long life characteristics.

Carbonless
Paper coated with chemicals and dye that will produce copies without carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).

Caret marks
An indication to the printer of an omission in the copy indicated as ( ) showing the insertion.

Carolingian script
A 9th century script developed for the Emperor Charlemagne`s revision of grammars, bibles and church books.

Carrier
Sometimes used to refer to the liner materials of pressure sensitive labels.

Cartridge
A thick general-purpose paper used for printing, drawing and wrapping.

Case binding
See binding.

Case bound
A hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather.

Cast coated
Coated paper dried under pressure against a polished cylinder produce a high-gloss finish to the paper.

Cast coating
Paper produced with a surface that is a reasonably accurate replication of some other surface. To manufacture cast-coated paper, a paper web with wet or moistened coating is brought into contact with a polished chrome drum surface, which is replicated in the coated sheet. There are two basic cast-coating technologies: the 'wet process', invented an…

Cast film
Plastic sheeting manufactured by the casting process, as opposed to the extruding process.

Cast off
A calculation determining how much space copy will take up when typeset.

Cast Vinyl
Vinyl sheeting manufactured by coating a liquid vinyl acetate or similar ester onto a casting paper and curing in a heated oven.

Cast-coated paper
A paper, the coating of which is allowed to harden or set while in contact with a finished casting surface.