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Romans in Britain - Glossary of military terms
Category: History and Culture > Romans
Date & country: 12/12/2007, UK
Words: 983


Phalerae
Set of discs used as military decorations.

Pharetra (LA-GR)
Quiver.

Phederatos
Allied soldier.

Phrouria
Guard post.

Phrouros
Guard.

Phylax
Guard. sentry.

Phylax tès chooras
'Guardian of the land'. militia soldier. police man.

Pia
Dutiful.

Pilanus
Equivalent for triarius .

Pilleus Pannonicus
'Pannonian cap'. late Roman military cap.

Pilos hysteros
Centurion. Greek equivalent of pilus posterior .

Pilum
Heavy javelin with long metal shank.

Pilum murale
'Wall javelin'. term nowadays often incorrectly used to designate pallisade stakes.

Pilum praepilatum
Training weapon tipped with a ball to prevent injury.

Pilus
Equivalent for triarius .

Pilus posterior
Deputy to pilus prior .

Pilus prior
Centurion commanding a manipulus of pili .

Pittakion
Chit. warrant.

Pitulus
Drummer. used on ships to set the pace for the rowers.

Planata
Flat shield.

Plumbata
Lead weighted dart.

Pluteus
Protective screen.

Poliorketès
Besieger.

Poliorkia
Siege.

Pomerium
Sacred boundary of the city of Rome within which the wearing of war gear was prohibited.

Popanum
Republican era cavalry shield shaped like a sacrifical cake.

Populus
'People'. part of the population with military service obligations, the people-in-arms.

Populus Romanus
'The Roman people'. Roman citizen body with service obligations.

Porta
Gate.

Porta decumana
Gate opposite porta praetoria , originally near the spot where the tenth manipuli of an army were camped.

Porta praetoria
Gate facing the enemy.

Porta principalis dextra
Right side gate.

Porta principalis sinistra
Left side gate.

Postsignanus
Soldier fighting behind the standards. legionary heavy infantry soldier.

Praeco
Herald.

Praeda
Spoils. plunder.

Praefectus
Senior officer.

Praefectus alae
Commander of a cavalry regiment.

Praefectus castrorum
Camp commandant.

Praefectus classis
Fleet commander.

Praefectus cohortis
Commander of a cohors .

Praefectus equitatus
Cavalry commander.

Praefectus equitum
Cavalry commander.

Praefectus fabrum
Officer in charge of artisans.

Praefectus legionis
Equestrian legionary commander.

Praefectus praetorio
Equestrian commander of cohortes praetoriae .

Praefectus sociorum
Roman officer appointed to a command function in an ala sociorum .

Praefectus urbanus
City prefect.

Praefectus vigilum
Commander of the vigiles .

Praemia
Discharge benefits.

Praemia militiae
Discharge benefits.

Praenomen imperatoris
First name of the emperor. all emperors carried Imperator, Commander-in-chief, as their praenomen .

Praepositus
Commander.

Praepositus copiarum
Supply offical.

Praepositus horrei
Official in charge of the granary.

Praeses
Equestrian provincial governor.

Praesidium
Military outpost. fort.

Praetensio
Military post. fort.

Praetensione colligare
To fortify. to strengthen with military posts.

Praetentura
Forward part of the camp in front of the praetorium .

Praetor
A - senior Roman magistrate. during republic commander of minor military forces. B - commander of allied contingent.

Praetorianus
Soldier belonging to a cohors praetoria .

Praetorium
Commander's living quarters. HQ.

Praeventor
Late Roman skirmisher.

Praiphektos
Officer. Greek transliteration of praefectus .

Praipositos
Commander.

Prata legionis
Fields or meadows reserved for the use of the legion.

Pretium annonae
Ration allowance.

Pridianum
Monthly or yearly strength report.

Primanus
Soldier belonging to legio I.

Primicerius
Late Roman officer.

Primipilaris
Former primus pilus .

Primus ordo
'First officer'. centurion of the first cohort, whose officers outranked the other centuriones of the legion.

Primus pilus
'First spearman'. highest ranking legionary centurio .

Primus pilus bis
'First spearman for the second time'. senior centurion serving a second stint.

Primus pilus iterum
Centurion serving second term as primus pilus .

Princeps
'Leader'. A - legionary heavy infantry soldier. B - centurion in command of unit or administrative office.

Princeps ordinarius vexillationis
Centurion in command of a detachment.

Princeps peregrinorum
'Commander of the foreigners'. centurio in charge of troops in the castra peregrina .

Princeps posterior
Deputy to princeps prior .

Princeps praetorii
Centurion attached to headquarters.

Princeps prior
Centurion commanding a manipulus of principes .

Principalis
Nco.

Principia
HQ building.

Privatus
Citizen without official capacity.

Privatus cum imperio
Citizen granted extraordinary powers without holding office as magistrate.

Privilegium
Privilege, perk.

Probatio
Examination.

Probatoria
Enrolment document.

Probatus
Recruit deemed fit for service.

Procinctus
Military readiness.

Proconsul
Former consul exercising similar imperium after his term of office. provincial governor.

Procursator
Advanced skirmisher.

Proditor
Traitor.

Proelium
Combat.

Proletarius
Roman citizen unable to meet property requirements for military service.

Promachos
Soldier belonging to the first battle line.

Propagator imperii
Extender of the empire.

Propraetor
Former praetor exercising similar imperium after his term of office. provincial governor.

Propugnator
'Frontrank fighter'. A - elite soldier. B - marine.