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Romans in Britain - Glossary of military terms
Category: History and Culture > Romans
Date & country: 12/12/2007, UK
Words: 983


Cibariator
Commissariat clerk.

Cibus
Food. ration.

Cinctus
'Girded with sword belt'. combat ready.

Cingulum
Late Roman military belt.

Cingulum militare
Late Roman military belt.

Circitor
Late Roman junior cavalry NCO originally tasked with making rounds to inspect sentries.

Circumvallatio
Circumvallation.

Civis Romanus
Roman citizen.

Civium Romanorum
Epithet of auxiliary units that were either originally recruited from Roman citizens or had received a mass grant of the citizenship for outstanding service.

Clades
Defeat.

Clades Lolliana
'Lollian defeat'. defeat of governor Lollius against invading Germanic tribesmen in 16 BC.

Clades Variana
'Varian defeat'. defeat of Varus in the Teutoburgian forest in 9 AD.

Classiarius
Sailor. marine.

Classicum
Military musical salute.

Classis
A - part of population with military service obligations. B - fleet.

Classis Germanica
'German fleet'. Rhine fleet.

Classis praetoria
'Praetorian fleet'. main naval fleet stationed at Ravenna or Misenum.

Classis praetoria Misenatium
'Praetorian fleet of Misenum'. main Roman fleet based in Tyrhenean Sea.

Classis praetoria Ravennatium
'Praetorian fleet of Ravenna'. main Roman fleet based in Adriatic Sea.

Clavarium
'Hobnail money'. allowance given to soldiers for purchase of extra nails when involved in prolonged marching.

Clavicula
Curved wall and ditch extension protecting a gate of a marching camp.

Clavicularius
Guard stationed at the gate.

Clavis lignea
Wooden practice sword.

Clavus
Tunic decoration.

Clibanarius
'Field oven man'. heavily armoured cavalry trooper.

Clipeus
Buckler.

Cognomen
(Honorary) nickname.

Cohors
Military unit.

Cohors alaria
Allied - or auxiliary unit.

Cohors classica
Auxiliary unit originally formed of sailors and marines.

Cohors equitata
Unit of auxiliary infantry with attached mounted squadrons.

Cohors Germanorum
The unit of Germani custodes corporis .

Cohors milliaria
'Thousand strong unit'. military unit with an establishment strength of a 1000 soldiers.

Cohors palatina
'Palace unit'. tetrarchic title of cohors praetoria .

Cohors peditata
Infantry unit.

Cohors praetoria
A - bodyguard of a general during the republic. B - unit of imperial guard.

Cohors quingenaria
Military unit with an establishment strength of 500 men.

Cohors speculatorum
Guard unit of Marcus Antonius composed of scouts.

Cohors togata
Unit of praetorian guard in civilian dress tasked with duties within the pomerium .

Cohors torquata
Auxiliary unit granted a torques .

Cohors tumultuaria
Irregular auxiliary unit.

Cohors urbana
Urban cohort. military police unit.

Cohors vigilum
Cohort of the watchmen. unit of the police force annex fire brigade.

Cohortalis
Soldier belonging to a cohors.

Collega
Member of the same unit.

Comes
'Companion'. A - friend of the emperor. B - late Roman army commander C - elite cavalryman.

Comes domesticorum
Commander of the household troops.

Comes domesticorum equitum
'Count of the household cavalry'. late Roman guard cavalry commander.

Comes rei militaris
'Count of military affairs'. late Roman military commander.

Comitatensis
Soldier belonging to late Roman field army.

Comitatus
'Following'. imperial field army of the third century AD.

Comites dominorum nostrorum
'Companions of our lords'. imperial horse guards from the tetrarchy.

Comitia centuriata
Popular assembly based on ancient army structure of centuriae .

Comitiatus
Senior officer elected by popular assembly.

Commanipularis
Fellow soldier. brother in arms.

Commeatus
Leave.

Commentariensis
Legal staff administrator.

Commentarii
Field commander's report to the senate.

Commilito
Fellow soldier.

Comminus
Close quarter fighting.

Commoda
Discharge benefits.

Commodiana
'Commodus' own'. honorary unit title.

Compar
Soldier of the same rank.

Concha
‘Seashell`. shipwreck.

Concordia exercituum
'Concord of the armies'. propaganda slogan used on coins.

Conditorium
Depot.

Conductor
Supply contractor.

Congeries armorum
Pile of military equipment.

Conquisitor
Recruiting officer.

Consilium
Imperial advisory council.

Consistorium
Late Roman imperial advisory council.

Constitutio
Service regulation. Several sets of military constitutiones were formulated by emperors, among them augustus and hadrianus.

Consul
Consul. highest magistrate in republican Rome commanding major military forces.

Consularis
Former consul .

Contarius
Heavy cavalry soldier armed with two handed pike.

Contiro
Fellow recruit.

Contubernalis
A - officer cadet. B - squad member.

Contubernium
Tentparty. group of soldiers sharing a tent.

Contus
Spear. heavy two handed thrusting spear.

Conubium
Legal marriage.

Conveteranus
Fellow veteran.

Copiae
A - military forces. B - supplies.

Cornicen
Horn-blower.

Cornicularius
NCO with administrative duties.

Cornu
A - horn. B - wing of battle formation.

Cornuti
'Horned ones'. late Roman auxilium palatinum .

Corona
Wreath or crown awarded as military decoration.

Corona aurea
Gold crown.

Corona civica
Wreath of oak leaves awarded for saving a fellow citizen's life.

Corona exploratoria
Crown awarded to scouts.

Corona graminea-obsidionalis
Grass crown awarded for saving an entire army.

Corona muralis
Crown awarded to first man reaching the top of an enemy wall.

Corona navalis
Naval crown.

Corona vallaris
Crown awarded to first man on top of an enemy rampart.

Corvus
'Raven'. movable boarding bridge.

Covinus
Celtic war-chariot.

Cratis
Wickerwork shield.

Crista
Helmet crest.

Crista transversa
Transverse helmet crest used as recognition mark of centurion.

Cuneus
'Wedge'. A - attack column or wedge formation. B - cavalry unit.