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The History Channel - Encyclopedia
Category: History and Culture > History
Date & country: 02/12/2007, UK
Words: 3936


Bunzel, Ruth Leah
(1898-1990) US cultural anthropologist. She made a study of Zuñi Indian pottery in 1924. In 1929 she published The Pueblo Potter. She also contributed important studies of Zuñi ceremonialism. She was born in...

Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig
(1784-1817) Swiss explorer sponsored 1806 by an English African Association to explore Africa. He discovered the ancient city of Burdett, Allen Mitchell, Jr
(1921-1980) US pilot. He helped test newly developed air mobility tactics as commander of the aviation group of the 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam 1965-66. He subsequently directed the Army Aviation School...

burgh
Archaic form of
borough. ...

burgher
Term used from the 11th century to describe citizens of burghs who were freemen of a burgh and had the right to participate in its government. They usually had to possess a house within the burgh. ...

Burgkmair, Hans
(1473-1531) German painter and wood engraver. His woodcuts - nearly 700 in all - are remarkable both for their dramatic strength and for their faithful presentation of contemporary life. He worked for the...

Burke, Martha Jane
Real name of US heroine Calamity Jane. ...

Burma
Former name (to 1989) of Myanmar. ...

Burnand, Francis Cowley
(1836-1917) English humorist. His popular burlesques included Black-eyed Susan (1866)...

Burnet, Alastair
(1928) Scottish journalist and current affairs presenter who anchored News at Ten for Independent Television News (ITN) from 1967 to 1972. He held the position of editor on The Economist between 1965 and...

Burnet, John
(1863-1928) Scottish scholar of ancient Greek. His publications include a critical edition (Oxford) of Plato's works (1900-13) which became the standard edition of its time. Burnet was born in Edinburgh and...

Burney, Charles
(1757-1817) English classical scholar. His valuable library was acquired by Parliament and deposited in the British Museum as the Burney Library. ...

Burton, Scott
(1939-1990) US sculptor and furniture designer. He was a free-lance art critic for Art News and participated in performance art during the 1970s. He is best known for...

Buryats
A Mongolian people living near Lake Baikal closely related to the Mongols and Kalmyks. Their religious beliefs combine Buddhism and Shamanism. ...

Bush, Barbara
(1925) US first lady 1989-93. She married George Bush in 1945. She was actively involved in programs to increase literacy and was also honorary chairman of the Leukemia Society. Popular for her...

Bushnell, Horace
(1802-1876) US minister and theologian. One of his most influential works was Christian Nurture (1847). By the time of his death he had carved out a place as one of the most influential of American Protestant...

bushranger
Australian armed robber of the 19th century. The first bushrangers were escaped convicts. The last gang was led by Ned Kelly and his brother Dan in 1878-80. They form the subject of many...

business rate
Tax levied on commercial property in an area. Business rates are set and collected by central government and the money is then distributed to local authorities to help finance their expenditure....

Butcher, Samuel Henry
(1850-1910) Irish classical scholar. He collaborated with Andrew Lang in a translation into English prose of Homer's Odyssey (1879). His works include Some Aspects of the Greek Genius (1891) and Aristotle's...

Butler, Joseph
(1692-1752) English priest and theologian who became dean of St Paul's in 1740 and bishop of Durham in 1750; his Analogy of Religion 1736 argued that it is no more rational to accept ...

Butskellism
UK term for political policies tending towards the middle ground in an effort to gain popular support; the term was coined 1954 after R A Butler (moderate Conservative) and Hugh Gaitskell (moderate...

buyer's market
Market having an excess of goods and services on offer and where prices are likely to be declining. The buyer benefits from the wide choice and competition available. ...

by-election
See electoral system: UK. ...

Bye, A E (Arthur Edwin)
(1919) Dutch-born US landscape architect who was brought to America in 1920. He is particularly known for his use of native flora and his respect for elements in the local natural landscape. His single...

Bykau, Vasil
(1924-2003) Belorussian writer. In novels such as The Ordeal (1970) and The Mark of Doom (1982) Bykau seeks to crystallize a specifically Belorussian sense of identity by exploring the severe wartime ordeals of...

Byng, George
(1663-1733) British admiral. He captured Gibraltar in 1704; commanded the fleet that prevented an invasion of England by the `Old Pretender` James Francis Edward Stuart in 1708; and destroyed the Spanish...

Byng, John
(1704-1757) British admiral. Byng failed in the attempt to relieve Fort St Philip when in 1756 the island of Menorca was invaded by France. He was court-martialled and shot. The French writer Voltaire...

Byrd, William
(1674-1744) American politician and historian. In 1709 he became a member of the Council of State. He was one of the commissioners appointed 1728 to make out a dividing line between Virginia...

Byzantine
Style in the visual arts and architecture that originated in the 4th-5th centuries in Byzantium (capital of the Eastern Roman Empire; renamed Constantinople in 330; now Istanbul). It spread to...

CAB
Acronym for citizens advice bureau. ...

Cabbala
Alternative spelling of Kabbalah. ...

cabinet government
Alternative term for parliamentary government. ...

Cabot, John M (Moors)
(1901-1981) US diplomat. He specialized in Eastern Europe and Latin America and was assistant secretary of state for Inter-American Affairs 1953-54. He wrote The Racial Conflict in Transylvania (1926) and...

Cabral, Pedro Alvares
(1460-1526) Portuguese explorer who made Brazil a Portuguese possession in 1500 and negotiated the first commercial treaty between Portugal and India. Cabral set sail from Lisbon for the East Indies in March...

CACM
Abbreviation for Central American Common Market. ...

CAD
Use of computers in creating and editing design drawings. CAD also allows such things as automatic testing of designs and multiple or animated three-dimensional views of designs. CAD systems are...

Cádiz, Raid on
A naval raid by Francis Drake on the Spanish fleet in the harbour of Cádiz in April 1587. Philip II of Spain was gathering the fleet together for the invasion of England. Taking advantage of...

Caesar
Family name of Julius Caesar and later an imperial title. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew and adopted son Octavius became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future emperor Augustus). From his day...

Caird, Edward
(1835-1908) Scottish theologian and philosopher. He is considered the founder of a school of neo-Hegelianism (see Georg Hegel). His works include A Critical Account of the Philosophy of Kant (1877) and The...

Cairnes, John Elliot
(1823-1875) Irish political economist. He was one of the last classical economists (see classical economics). In 1856 he...

Caitanya
(1486-1533) Principal leader in Bengal of the bhakti movement which revitalized medieval Hinduism. He inspired a mass movement...

Calenius, Walter
(died 1151) English archdeacon of Oxford (1115-38). ...

Caley, George
(1770-1829) English botanist and explorer in Australia whose many excursions resulted in a detailed knowledge of the country surrounding the settlement of Sydney. ...

California Joe
US frontiersman and scout; see Moses Embree Milner. ...

Callicratidas
(lived 5th century BC) Spartan admiral. He commanded the fleet that the Athenian admiral Conon defeated at Arginusae 406 BC. ...

Calpe
Name of Gibraltar in ancient Phoenician and Carthaginian times. ...

calumet
Another term for peace pipe. ...

Calvin (or Cauvin or Chauvin), John
(1509-1564) French-born Swiss Protestant church reformer and theologian. He was a leader of the Reformation in Geneva and set up a strict religious community there. His theological system is known as...

Cameron, Charles
(c. 1740-1812) Scottish architect. His work was classical in spirit and very scholarly. He trained under Isaac Ware (1717-1766) in the Palladian tradition before be ...

Campbell, Alastair John
(1957) UK journalist and Labour Party media strategist. He was appointed to Tony Blair's staff when Blair became leader of the Labour Party in 1994 and he helped to co-ordinate the party's 1997 general...

Campbell, Colen
(1676-1729) Scottish architect. He was one of the principal figures in British Palladian architecture. His widely influential book Vitruvius Britannicus was published in 1712. Among his best-known works are...

Cámpora, Héctor
(1909-1980) Argentine left-wing politician and president May-July 1973. His election came against a background of growing discontentment among supporters of Juan Perón concerned with increasing civil...

Canaanite mythology
Body of tradition and beliefs held by the ancient Canaanites of the western Mediterranean. Cuneiform texts from the 14th century BC found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) contain lively narratives...

Canadian literature
Canadian literature in English began early in the 19th century in the Maritime Provinces with the humorous tales of T C Haliburton (1796-1865). Charles Heavysege (1816-1876) published poems...

Candella
Rajput dynasty; see Chandela. ...

Canning, Stratford
(1786-1880) British nobleman and diplomat. He negotiated the treaty of Bucharest between Russia and Turkey 1812 and helped establish a federal government in Switzerland 1815. He was minister to the USA...

Cantemir, Demetrie
(1673-1723) Moldavian statesman and linguist. He was the most distinguished member of an originally Tatar family which emigrated from the Crimea to Moldavia in the 17th century. He ruled Moldavia for one year...

Capaha
Alternative name for a member of the American Indian Quapaw people. ...

capital flight
Transfer of funds from a particular national economy or out of a particular currency in anticipation of less attractive investment conditions. Capital flight from Russia 1991-92...

capital stock
The total amount of capital in a business organization or economy. ...

Cappelle, Jan van de
(1626-1679) Dutch marine painter and etcher. His paintings of ships are especially notable for their skies. He also produced some winter landscapes and etchings in the manner of Aert van de Neer. Cappelle was...

Caprivi, (Georg) Leo, Graf von
(1831-1899) German soldier and politician. While chief of the admiralty (1883-88) he reorganized the German navy. He became imperial chancellor 1890-94 succeeding Bismarck and renewed the Triple Alliance...

carbon dating
Alternative name for radiocarbon dating. ...

Carbonari
Secret revolutionary society in southern Italy in the first half of the 19th century that advocated constitutional government. The movement spread to northern Italy but support dwindled after the...

Cardarelli, Vincenzo (or Nazareno)
(1887-1959) Italian writer. He collaborated in founding the review La voce and later ran the magazine La ronda 1919-23. His most important volume of poetry is Prologhi/Prologues (1916). ...

Carey, Henry
(1687-1743) English poet and musician. He wrote the song `Sally in Our Alley`. `God Save the King` (both words and music) has also been attributed to him. Carey was a pupil of Thomas Roseingrave and...

Carey, Mathew
(1760-1839) Irish-born American publisher and bookseller who settled in the USA in 1784. He became an important publisher and wrote widely on economics and other subjects. In 1785 he founded the Pennsylvania...

Carey, William
(1761-1834) English orientalist and missionary. He was one of the founders of the Particular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel amongst the Heathen in 1792. In 1793 he went as a missionary to Bengal. He...

Carib
Member of a group of American Indian people of the north coast of South America and the islands of the southern West Indies in the Caribbean. Those who moved north to take the islands from the...

CARICOM
Acronym for Caribbean Community and Common Market. ...

Carlevaris, Luca
(1663-1730) Italian painter and etcher. He is considered to be the founder of Venetian 18th-century topographical painting. He studied painting in Rome under Flemish and Dutch artists and moved to Venice...

Carlile, Wilson
(1847-1942) English founder of the ...

Carnegie Medal
Annual award for an outstanding book for children written in English and published in the UK. The medal was first awarded in 1937 to Arthur Ransome's Pigeon Post (in the
Swallows and Amazons...

Carolingian dynasty
Frankish dynasty descending from Pepin the Short (died 768) and named after his son Charlemagne; its last ruler was Louis V...

Carolingian Renaissance
Period of learning that began under Charlemagne. ...

Carpenter, Harry
(1925) English sports commentator who commentated on boxing and other sports on television for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for over 40 years. ...

carrier warfare
Naval warfare involving aircraft carriers. Carrier warfare was conducted during World War II in...

Carson, Edward Henry
(1854-1935) Anglo-Irish politician and lawyer who played a decisive part in the trial of the writer Oscar Wilde. In the years before World War I he led the movement in Ulster to resist Irish home rule by...

Carson, Violet
(1898-1983) English actor who played the formidable Ena Sharples for over 20 years in the Independent Television (ITV) soap opera Coronation Street. She was awarded an OBE in 1965. She began her career in...

Carter Doctrine
Assertion 1980 by President Carter of a vital US interest in the Gulf region (prompted by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and instability in Iran): any outside attempt at control would be met by...

Carter, Nick
US writer; see Edward L Stratemeyer. ...

Carteret, Philip
English navigator who discovered the Pitcairn Islands 1767 during a round-the-world expedition 1766-69. He retired 1794 with the rank of rear admiral. ...

case shot
Non-explosive artillery projectile consisting of a sheet-metal canister filled with lead or cast-iron balls. On being fired from a gun the canister is split by the force of the propellant...

Cassirer, Ernst
(1874-1945) German philosopher of the neo-Kantian school (see neo-Kantianism). Immanuel Kant had taught that human...

Cassius, Avidius
(died AD 175) Roman general under the emperor Marcus Aurelius. He distinguished himself in...

Castiglione, Achille
(1918-2002) Italian industrial designer. He worked with his brothers Livio (1911-1979) and Pier Giacomo (1913-1968) until they died. A key member of the generation of Italian designers who trained as...

Castle, Barbara Anne
(1911-2002) British Labour politician; a cabinet minister in the Labour governments of the 1960s and 1970s. She led the Labour group in the European Parliament 1979-89 and became a life peer in 1990. Castle...

Cat
Alternative name for the Erie people. ...

Catesby, Robert
(1573-1605) English conspirator and leader of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He took part in the uprising of the 2nd Earl of Essex in 1601 and was an accomplice in the plot of 1603 to capture James I and force...

Catherine of Genoa, St
(1447-1510) Italian mystic who devoted herself to the sick and to meditation. Her feast day is 15 September. She was canonized in 1737. ...

caveat emptor
Dictum that professes the buyer is responsible for checking that the goods or services they purchase are satisfactory. The implication of caveat emptor is that...

Cavendish-Bentinck
Family name of the dukes of Portland. ...

Cavendish, Spencer
British politician; see Spencer Compton Cavendish Hartington. ...

Cawley, William
(1602-1666) English republican politician. He was an active member of the Long Parliament and was one of the judges who condemned Charles I to death 1649. Excluded from pardon on the Restoration of the monarchy...

Cayton, Horace Roscoe
(1903-1970) US sociologist and cultural anthropologist. He taught at Fisk University and later headed a Works Progress Administration research project in Chicago that formed the basis of the landmark study...

CB
Abbreviation for citizens' band (radio). ...

CCASG
Abbreviation for Cooperative Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ...

CE
Abbreviation for Common Era (see calendar);Church of England (often C of E). ...

Cech, Svatopluk
(1846-1908) Czech poet and novelist. He was one of the principal architects of Czech nationalism. His verse is richly rhetorical and full of vivid images. Cech's varied work includes epics based on Czech...

Céitinn, Seathrún
Gaelic name of Irish Gaelic poet and historian Geoffrey Keating. ...