Copy of `The History Channel - Encyclopedia`

The wordlist doesn't exist anymore, or, the website doesn't exist anymore. On this page you can find a copy of the original information. The information may have been taken offline because it is outdated.


The History Channel - Encyclopedia
Category: History and Culture > History
Date & country: 02/12/2007, UK
Words: 28028


Albertus the Great, St
(1200-1280) German scholar of Christian theology, philosophy (especially Aristotelian), natural science, chemistry, and physics. He was known as `doctor universalis` because of the...

Albigenses
Heretical sect of Christians (also known as the Cathars) who flourished in southern France near Albi and Toulouse during the 11th-13th centuries. They adopted the Manichean belief in the duality...

Albion
Name for Britain used by the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was mentioned by Pytheas of Massilia (4th century BC), and is probably of Celtic origin, but the Romans, having in mind the white cliffs of...

Albizu Campos, Pedro
(1891-1964) Puerto-Rican revolutionary. A member of the Nationalist Party, he was the most prominent independentista of his time. He masterminded a nationalist uprising in Puerto Rico in 1950 and was accused...

Albizzi, Rinaldo degli
(1370-1442) Italian political figure and soldier, unofficial ruler of Florence 1417-34. A leading member of the Albizzi family, which dominated the government of Florence after the revolt of the Ciompi in...

Alboin
(lived 6th century) King of the Lombards about 561-573. At that time the Lombards were settled north of the Alps. Early in his reign he attacked the Gepidae, a Germanic tribe occupying present-day Romania, killing...

Albright, Ivan (Le Lorraine)
(1897-1983) US painter. A former medical draftsman, he drew on this background, both in his preoccupation with decay and in his paintings' macabre surrealistic details. He attained his widest exposure from his...

Albright, Madeleine
(1937) US diplomat and Democrat politician, Secretary of State 1997-2001. An adviser to leading Democrat politicians from the early 1970s, she was US ambassador to the United Nations 1993-97. Albright...

Albright, William Foxwell
(1891-1971) Chilean-born archaeologist and biblical scholar. An authority on biblical languages and commentator on the Dead Sea scrolls, he brought archaeology and linguistics to bear on biblical studies,...

Albuera, Battle of
In the Peninsular War, British victory over the French 16 May 1811 at Albuera, a village some 21 km/13 mi southeast of Badajoz, Spain. A French army of about 23,000 troops under Marshal Nicolas...

Albuquerque, Afonso de
(1453-1515) Viceroy and founder of the Portuguese East Indies with strongholds in Ceylon, Goa, and Malacca (now Melaka) 1508-15. In 1515 the king of Portugal recalled him, putting Albuquerque's personal enemy...

Alcaeus
(c. 611-c. 580 BC) Greek lyric poet. Born at Mytilene in Lesvos, a contemporary of Sappho, he was a member of an aristocratic family opposed to the ruling tyrants, and spent time in exile. The surviving fragments of...

Alcalá Zamora y Torres, Niceto
(1877-1949) Spanish politician, first president of Spain 1931-36. In April 1936 a Socialist motion in the Cortes (national assembly) censuring the president was carried and he resigned. ...

alcalde (or alcaide)
Title for a judicial officer or a mayor in Spain and parts of Central and South America settled by the Spaniards. ...

Alcamenes
(lived 5th century BC) Athenian classical sculptor, successor to Phidias, whose student he may have been. Delicacy and finish characterize his works such as Aphrodite of...

Alcantara, Knights of
Military and monastic order of knights founded 1156 as the order of St Julian for the defence of Spain against the Moors. The order was approved 1177 by Pope Alexander III. In 1835 it was changed...

alcázar
Any one of several fortified palaces built by the Moors in Spain. The one in Toledo was defended by the Nationalists against the Republicans for 71 days in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. ...

Alcazarquivir, Battle of
Battle on 4 August 1578 between the forces of Sebastian, King of Portugal (1554-1578), and those of the Berber kingdom of Fès. Sebastian's death on the field of battle paved the way for the...

Alcestis
In Greek mythology, the wife of Admetus, King of Thessaly. At their wedding, the god Apollo secured a promise from the Fates that Admetus might postpone his death, when the time came, if he could...

Alciati, Andrea
(1492-1550) Italian humanist lawyer. He wrote in particular on civil law. He also found time to produce his Emblemata (1531), one of the first and most popular collections of allegorical images, which had a...

Alcibiades
(451/0-404/3 BC) Athenian politician and general during the Peloponnesian War. In 415 BC Alcibiades was appointed one of the commanders of an Athenian expedition against Sicily, but was recalled to answer charges of...

Alcinoüs
In the Greek epic Odyssey (attributed to Homer), the king of the Phaeacians, in the island of Scheria. ...

Alciphron
Greek writer. His prose epistles consist of four groups: letters from fishermen, farmers, parasites, and courtesans. The scenes are set in Athens in the 4th century BC and the style is vivid and...

Alcmaeon
In Greek mythology, son of Amphiaraus. At his father's command, he and his brother Amphilochus killed their mother Eriphyle. Pursued by the Erinyes (Furies), he fled to Psophis where he was purified...

Alcmaeonidae
Noble family of ancient Athens; its members included Pericles and Alcibiades. As a result of Megacles' treatment of the insurgents under Cylon 612 BC, the Alcmaeonidae...

Alcman
(lived 7th century BC) Greek lyric poet. He composed choral works for Spartan festivals, especially songs to be sung by two choirs of girls. The longest surviving fragment of his work is the...

Alcmene
In Greek mythology, the wife of Amphitryon. Zeus, the king of the gods, visited Alcmene in the form of her husband, and the child of their union was the Greek hero Heracles. ...

Alcock, John
(c. 1430-1500) English bishop. He was successively bishop of Rochester 1472, Worcester 1476, and Ely 1486. He was the founder of Jesus College, Cambridge, 1496. ...

Alcock, John William
(1892-1919) English aviator. On 14 June 1919, he and Arthur Whitten-Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight, from Newfoundland to Ireland. He was awarded the KBE in 1919. ...

Alcoforado, Marianna
(1640-1723) Portuguese nun. The `Lettres portugaises/Letters of a Portuguese Nun` (1669), a series of love letters supposedly written by her to a young French nobleman (who abandoned her when their...

Alcott, Louisa May
(1832-1888) US author. Her children's classic Little Women (1869) drew on her own home circumstances; the principal character Jo was a partial self-portrait. Sequels to...

Alcuin
(735-804) English scholar. Born in York, he went to Rome in 780, and in 782 took up residence at Charlemagne's court in Aachen. From 796 he was abbot at St Martin's in Tours. He disseminated Anglo-Saxon...

Alcyone
In Greek mythology, the daughter of Aeolus and wife of Ceyx. She and her husband were changed into kingfishers after Ceyx was shipwrecked and Alcyone had thrown herself into the...

Aldegrever, Heinrich
(1502-c. 1561) German print maker and painter. In his early career he produced several small engravings of religious subjects, but his main work was ornamental designs; his style was strongly influenced by the...

Alden, John
(c. 1599-1687) English Pilgrim who travelled to America aboard theMayflower. He held several important posts within the Duxbury colony, where he had moved to from nearby Plymouth in about. 1627. ...

alderman
Anglo-Saxon term for the noble governor of a shire; after the Norman Conquest the office was replaced with that of sheriff. From the 19th century aldermen were the senior members of the borough or...

Aldermaston
Village in west Berkshire, England, and site of an atomic and biological weapons research establishment, which employs some 5,000 people working on the production of nuclear warheads. During...

Aldershot
Town in Hampshire, southern England, 56 km/35 mi southwest of London; population (2001) 58,200. Industrial products include electronics, and vehicle components for cars and tankers. It contains the...

Aldhelm, St
(c. 640-709) English prelate and scholar. He was abbot of Malmesbury from 673 and bishop of Sherborne from 705. Of his poems and treatises in Latin, some survive, notably his Riddles in hexameters, but his...

Aldington, Richard
(1892-1962) English poet, novelist, and critic. A leading Imagist (see Imagism), he published the collection Images (1915). He wrote biographies of the English writers D H Lawrence and T E Lawrence and his...

Aldiss, Brian W(ilson)
(1925) English novelist, science-fiction writer, anthologist, and critic. His futuristic novels include Non-Stop (1958), Barefoot in the Head (1969), the `Helliconia` trilogy (1982-85), and...

Aldred (or Ealdred)
(died 1069) English monk. He became abbot of Tavistock about 1027, bishop of Worcester 1044, and archbishop of York 1060. He negotiated with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III for the return to England of Edmund...

Aldrich, Henry
(1648-1710) English ecclesiastic. He wrote A Compendium of Logic 1691, used at Oxford for a long time; he also composed church music. He designed Peckwater Quadrangle (Christ Church College) and possibly All...

Aldrich, Larry
(1906-2001) US entrepreneur and art collector. Having made his fortune in the garment industry, Aldrich became a benefactor of contemporary art, bestowing his extensive art collection and donating funds to many...

Aldrich, Nelson (Wilmarth)
(1841-1915) US representative and senator. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1879 and the US Senate in 1881, Aldrich was a friend of business interests and...

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey
(1836-1907) US poet and editor. The Story of a Bad Boy (1870), which is partly autobiographical, was followed by the novels Prudence Palfrey (1874), The Queen of Sheba (1877), and The Stillwater Tragedy (1880)....

Aldridge, Ira Frederick
(1804-1867) US actor; a British citizen from 1863. He played all the major tragic Shakespearean roles, touring England and Europe. His interpretation of Othello was particularly noted. ...

ale conner (or ale kenner)
One who knows what good ale is. In medieval times ale conners or ale tasters (called gustatores cervisiae) were appointed annually in the court-leet of each manor, in boroughs, and in corporate...

Aleandro, Girolamo
(1480-1542) Italian humanist and diplomat. One of the leading scholars of his day, he taught Latin, Greek and Hebrew in Paris. He was also a papal envoy, and was one of the leading adversaries of Martin Luther...

Aleardi, Aleardo
(1812-1878) Italian poet and patriot. His poems are full of passionate hopes for the liberation of Italy. They include `Il Monte Circello/Mount Circello` (1852), `Le città italiane marinare e...

Alebua, Ezekiel
(1947) Solomon Islands right-of-centre politician, prime minister 1986-89. He rose from the ranks of the right-of-centre Solomon Islands United Party (SIUPA) to become deputy prime minister in...

Alecsandri, Vasile
(1821-1890) Romanian poet and dramatist. As a director of the new National Theatre in Iasi from 1840, he wrote Chirita in Iasi (1850) and Chirita in provincie (1852). Later he turned to historical drama. His...

alehouse
Formerly a house, or tavern, where ale was sold. In 1496 an act passed against `vacabounds and beggers` contained a clause regulating alehouses, and various acts were subsequently passed for...

Aleijadinho
(c. 1738-1814) Brazilian artist. He is generally considered to be the greatest Brazilian sculptor. Having lost the use of his hands, he sculpted with his tools strapped to them, hence his name which means...

Aleixandre, Vicente
(1898-1984) Spanish lyric poet. His verse, such as the surrealist La destrucción o el amor/The Destruction of Love (1935) (translated 1976), had Republican sympathies, and his work was for a time banned by...

Alekseev, Mikhail Vasilievich
(1857-1918) Russian general. He was twice appointed Chief of Staff, under the supreme commanders in chief Nicholas II (1915) and Kerenski (1917), with a brief period inbetween as commander-in-chief of all...

Alemán Lacayo, (José Arnoldo)
(1946) Nicaraguan right-wing politician, president 1997-2002. Standing as the candidate of the right-wing Liberal Alliance, he defeated Daniel Ortega in the October 1996 presidential contest. He...

Alemán Valdés, Miguel
(1902-1983) Mexican right-wing politician, president 1946-52. Standing as candidate of the ruling National Revolutionary Party (NRP), he was elected in 1946 as the first civilian president of Mexico since...

Alemán, Mateo
(1547-post 1615) Spanish novelist. He was the author of the popular picaresque novel Guzmán de Alfarache (1599). He also published a life of St Antonio of Padua (1604) and Ortografía castellana/Castilian...

Alençon, François
(1554-1584) Fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. At one time he was considered as a suitor to Elizabeth I of England. ...

Alesia, Siege of
Julius Caesar's final defeat of the Gauls 52 BC, completing the Roman conquest of Gaul. Napoleon III erected a statue of the Gallic chief Vercingetorix on the site of the battle in 1864. The town,...

Alessandri Palma, Arturo
(1868-1950) Chilean president 1920-25 and 1932-37. Social and political reforms proposed in his first presidential term were blocked by an opposition-controlled congress. Forced into exile, he returned to...

Alessi, Galeazzo
(1512-1572) Architect from Peruggia, Italy. His style was based on his enthusiasm for both classical architecture and Michelangelo's work. Among his finest works are the courtyard of the Palazzo Marino in Milan...

Aleut
Member of an Arctic people who settled the Aleutian Islands in the north Pacific, between Russia and Alaska, around 2500-1000 BC. The Aleut have two linguistic subgroups: the Atkans of the western...

Alexander
(1893-1920) King of the Hellenes (Greece), second son of King Constantine I, on whose dethronement 1917 he ascended the throne. His government, with Eleutherios Venizelos as premier, enjoyed...

Alexander `the Magnificent`
(died 1148) English cleric. He became bishop of Lincoln 1123. In the civil war over the accession to the throne he took the side of Stephen, although he had sworn allegiance to Matilda. Suspected of disloyalty,...

Alexander I
(died c. 450 BC) King of Macedonia c. 500-454 BC. He was obliged to submit to the Persians, and accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece 480 BC. He was succeeded by Perdiccas II. ...

Alexander I
(died 330 BC) King of Epirus, Greece, about 342-330 BC. In 332 he crossed to Italy, to aid the Tarentines against the Samnites and other tribes, but was defeated and killed near Pandosia. He was the brother of...

Alexander I
(died 145 BC) King of Syria 150-145 BC. He was a man of low birth who pretended to be the son of Antiochus IV. He was defeated and dethroned by Demetrius II of Syria. ...

Alexander I
(c. 1078-1124) King of Scotland from 1107, known as `the Fierce`. He ruled over the area to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, while his brother and successor David ruled over the area to the south. He...

Alexander I
(1857-1893) Prince of Bulgaria (Alexander Joseph of Battenberg; Prince Alexander of Hesse). A nephew of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, he was, at Russia's proposal, elected first sovereign prince of autonomous...

Alexander I
(1777-1825) Tsar of Russia from 1801. Defeated by Napoleon at Austerlitz in 1805, he made peace at Tilsit in 1807, but economic crisis led to a break with Napoleon's Continental System and the opening of...

Alexander I, Karageorgevich
(1888-1934) Regent of Serbia 1912-21 and king of Yugoslavia 1921-34, as dictator from 1929. The second son of Peter I, King of Serbia, he was declared regent for his father in 1912 and on his father's death...

Alexander II
(died 122 BC) King of Syria 128-122 BC. He was a merchant set up by Ptolemy VII Physcon as pretender to the Seleucid kingdom. He was defeated and slain by Antiochus VIII Grypus. ...

Alexander II
(died 1075) Pope 1061-73. He was the nominee of Hildebrand, whose policy he carried out in preparation for the accession of Hildebrand himself (Gregory VII). Alexander sanctioned the...

Alexander II
(1818-1881) Tsar of Russia from 1855. He embarked on reforms of the army, the government, and education, and is remembered as `the Liberator` for his emancipation of the serfs in 1861, but he lacked the...

Alexander II
(1198-1249) King of Scotland from 1214, when he succeeded his father, William the Lion. Alexander supported the English barons in their struggle with King John after Magna Carta. The accession of Henry III of...

Alexander II
King of Epirus, son of Pyrrhus, whom he succeeded 272 BC. He was driven from the kingdom by the king of Macedonia Demetrius II (lived about 276-229 BC), son of Antigonus Gonatas,...

Alexander III
(died 1181) Pope 1159-81. His authority was opposed by Frederick I Barbarossa, but Alexander eventually compelled him to render homage in 1178. He held the third Lateran Council in 1179. He supported Henry II...

Alexander III
(1845-1894) Tsar of Russia from 1881, when he succeeded his father, Alexander II. He pursued a reactionary policy, promoting Russification and persecuting the Jews. He married Dagmar (1847-1928), daughter of...

Alexander III
(1241-1286) King of Scotland from 1249, son of Alexander II. After defeating the Norwegian forces in 1263, he was able to extend his authority over the Western Isles, which had been dependent on Norway. The...

Alexander IV
(323-310 BC) King of Macedonia 323-317 BC. He was acknowledged as partner in the empire with his uncle Philip Arrhidaeus under the regency of the generals Antipater and Craterus. Alexander and his mother were...

Alexander Nevski, St
(1220-1263) Russian military leader, ruler of Novgorod in 1236, and Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1252. He survived Mongol attacks in 1237-40, which enabled him to defeat...

Alexander Obrenovich
(1876-1903) King of Serbia from 1889 while still a minor, on the abdication of his father, King Milan I. He took power into his own hands 1893 and aroused great opposition by his marriage to Draga Mashin, a...

Alexander of Aphrodisias
Celebrated peripatetic philosopher and early commentator on Aristotle, from Caria, southwestern Asia Minor. ...

Alexander of Hales
(c. 1186-1245) English theologian. As professor of theology in Paris he taught St Bonaventure and Roger Bacon. His principal work is Summa theologica 1373, which is thought to be largely the work of his followers,...

Alexander Severus
(AD 208-235) Roman emperor from 222, when he succeeded his cousin Heliogabalus. He attempted to involve the Senate more closely in administration, and was the patron of the jurists Ulpian and Paulus, and the...

Alexander VI
(1430 or 1432-1503) Pope 1492-1503. Of Spanish origin, he bribed his way to the papacy, where he furthered the advancement of his illegitimate children, who included Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia. When Savonarola...

Alexander VII
(1599-1667) Pope 1655-67. He succeeded Innocent X and was a patron of the arts, which he much preferred to affairs of state - he was responsible for the colonnade of St Peter's. He supported the Society of...

Alexander, (Andrew) Lamar
(1940) US Republican governor. Alexander spent his first term as governor of Tenessee, 1979-87, dealing with the scandals created by his predecessor, Ray Blanton. He recovered some prestige with the...

Alexander, Archibald
(1772-1851) US Protestant clergyman and educator. President of Hampden-Sidney College from 1796-1807, he became a professor at the newly established Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812 and remained there...

Alexander, Boyd
(1873-1910) British explorer, born at Cranbrook, in Kent, who took part in the Alexander-Gosling expedition of 1904-07, which crossed Africa from the Niger to the Nile. In 1909 Alexander began his last...

Alexander, Clifford
(1933) US cabinet member and lawyer. He was executive director of Harlem Youth Opportunities, 1962-63, and went on to direct the National Security Council. In 1965-67 he served as special counsel to...

Alexander, De Alva Standwood
(1845-1925) US representative and historian. A member of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War, he was a teacher and newspaperman in Indiana before becoming a lawyer in 1877. Alexander became...

Alexander, Douglas
(1967) British Labour politician, member of Parliament from 1997 for Paisley South (and Paisley and Renfrewshire South from 2005), and secretary of state for international devlopment from 2007. A trained...

Alexander, George
(1858-1918) English actor-manager. He joined Henry Irving's company at the Lyceum as a professional actor 1881, and in 1891 became manager of the St James's Theatre, where he remained until his death. He...

Alexander, Jean
(1926-1998) English actor who played Hilda Ogden in the Independent Television (ITV) soap opera Coronation Street (1964-87). Her first appearance in Coronation Street was as landlady Mrs Webb. She received...

Alexander, John (White)
(1856-1915) US painter. Alexander was a successful portrait painter who used an art nouveau style, as seen in Isabella; or the Pot of Basil (1897). Born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania; Alexander began as an...

Alexander, Robert Jackson
(1918) US political scientist. His works on economic development and the history of labour and radical movements in Latin America include The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution (1964) and Bolivia (1982). The...

Alexander, Samuel
(1859-1938) Australian philosopher. He originated the theory of emergent evolution: that the space-time matrix evolved matter; matter evolved life; life evolved mind; and finally God emerged from mind. His...