Copy of `TCM (R&D) - Vegetation management and ecology`

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TCM (R&D) - Vegetation management and ecology
Category: Animals and Nature > Vegetation
Date & country: 25/11/2007, UK
Words: 138


Achene
A small, dry fruit covered with a thin tight skin.

Acuminate
Leaf-tip tapering to a point; usually with concave sides.

Acute
Bearing a sharp tip.

Adpressed
Lying flat or close to the stem, etc.

Adventitious
Originating from other than the usual location.

Aerenchymous
Composed of thin walled air-conducting tissue, with large intercellular spaces.

Allelopathic
An effect whereby a plant species chemically antagonises others in its environment, in order to gain competitive advantage.

Alternate
Opposite Sessile Succulent Terrestrial (in this case) Pairs of leaves successively at 90° to one another.

Amplexicaul
A leaf-base clasping or embracing the stem.

Angiosperm
A flowering, seed-bearing plant in which the ovules are enclosed within the ovary.

Annual
Completing the entire life-cycle within one year.

Anther
The pollen-bearing organ.

Axillary
The upper angle between, e.g., a stem and a side-shoot.

Biennial
From germination, flowering and death in two years.

Bipinnate
A leaf were both primary and secondary divisions are formed of lobes arranged as in a feather.

Bract
A modified leaf protecting the inflorescence.

Capitulum (pl.-a)
A head of densely clustered stalkless flowers on a highly compressed axis. (In Ragwort, each apparently daisy-like flower is, in fact, 70 or more tiny flowers)

Carpel
The unfertilised seed and its associated organs.

Ciliate
Bearing a fringe of fine hairs.

Clone
Genetically identical, asexually derived offspring.

Colloid
A fluid substance where minute particles of one substance are dispersed, without settling, in another.

Connate
Fused into a single structure at the base.

Cordate
Heart-shaped.

Corymb
A flat topped or convex flowerhead, opening from the outer flowers.

Crenate
Scalloped, with shallow, rounded teeth.

Crown
The base of an herbaceous plant where roots or rhizomes and aerial stems or resting buds meet.

Cuspidate
Terminating abruptly into a sharp point.

Cyanobacterium
Indicating the blue colour of these micro-organisms.

Cytogenetics
The study of heredity and variation at cell nucleus level.

Decumbent
A stem lying horizontally but with the terminal shoot ascending and almost vertical.

Dehiscent
Splitting along distinct lines to release seeds.

Denticulate
Minutely toothed.

Dimorphic
In two different forms or shapes.

Dioecious
Bearing male or female flowers on separate plants.

Diploid
Possessing two basic sets of chromosomes.

Distal
The part furthest from the point of origin.

Ecosystem
The unit consisting of a community of living organisms and their environment.

Elliptic
Tapered-oval. ellipse shaped.

Embryo
The rudimentary plant within the seed.

Eutrophic
Water with high levels of plant nutrients, sometimes due to human activity.

Evergreen
Foliage remaining green for more than one growing season.

Exserted
Obviously projecting beyond surrounding parts; stuck out

Fern
Green, non-flowering vascular plants, reproducing by vegetative or fertilized spores.

Floccose
Bearing woolly hairs, which easily rub out.

Frond
The leaf of a fern.

Fruit
The fertilised and ripened ovary, with any attached structures.

Gamete
A fertile reproductive cell.

Gibberellic Acid
A growth stimulating and dormancy breaking plant hormone.

Glabrous
Smooth, hairless.

Gland
A structure secreting substances, eg. oils.

Glaucous
As if coated with a blue-green bloom.

Gymnospenn
Conifers, Cycads and Ginkgo; seed-bearing plants in which the ovules are not enclosed in an ovary.

Hardy
Surviving frost in some or all of its parts.

Herb
Any non woody plant.

Herbaceous
Not having woody aerial parts persistent over the seasons.

Heterosporous
Producing spores of both sexes.

Hexaploid
Possessing six basic sets of chromosomes.

Hybrid
A plant resulting from the cross-breeding of two genetically dissimilar parents.

Imbricate
In this case, with leaves closely overlapping

Indusium
The epidermal covering or envelope of a sorus.

Inflorescence
The arrangement of flowers and their associated parts.

Internode
The portion of stem between two nodes.

Lamina
The blade of a leaf.

Lanceolate
Lance-shaped, tapering to a spear-point.

Linear
Slender, elongated, sides parallel.

Lobe
Divided into (usually) rounded segments.

Megasporangium
The spore producing body, producing megaspores.

Megaspore
The larger type of spore, bearing female gametes

Mericarp
One of a pair of seeds which split apart at maturity.

Metabolism
The chemical changes in the plant's cells, to provide energy for vital processes.

Microspore
The smaller type of spore, bearing male gametes.

Monoecious
Bearing both male and female flowers separately on the same plant, or having individual flowers bearing both male and female parts.

Mucilage
A viscous, jelly like fluid.

Node
The point of attachment for leaves, stems, branches etc.

Oblong
At least twice as long as broad, with parallel sides.

Obovate
Egg-shaped, with the small end towards the stem.

Opposite
Two organs at a node on opposite sides of the stem or axis.

Ovary
The protective envelope for the ovules.

Ovate
Rounded at both ends; broadest below the middle.

Ovule
The unfertilised seed.

Panicle
A branched flowerhead.

Papillose
Covered with small soft protuberances.

Pappus
A whorl or tuft of delicate bristles.

Pectinate
Of many segments; like the teeth of a comb.

Pedicel
The stalk supporting an individual flower.

Peduncle
The stalk of a group of flowers.

Pendent
Markedly down-hanging.

Perennial
A plant lasting 3 or more seasonal cycles.

Petal
An often brightly-coloured modified leaf, to attract pollinators.

Petiole
The leaf stalk.

pH
A measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a medium. Neutral is represented by 7; with lower figures indicating increased acidity and higher figures, increased alkalinity.

Phloem
Complex vascular tissue involved in the-transport of nutrients throughout a plant.

Photosynthesis
The manufacture, fuelled by solar energy, of complex organic molecules within the green tissues of plants, from the raw materials, carbon dioxide and water.

Phyllaries
Bracts or modifed leaves, forming a collar behind a flower.

Pilose
Covered with widespread, soft, tender hairs.

Pinnae
A compound leaf of leaflets in 2 rows along the Rachis.

Pinnate
A leaf divided into more than 3 lobes or leaflets, like a feather.

Pinnatifid
Divided almost to the midrib in broad segments.

Pneumatophorc
Air filled respiratory roots.

Primordium
A tissue or plant organ in its earliest distinct state.