Copy of `TD Waterhouse - Investing glossary`

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TD Waterhouse - Investing glossary
Category: Economy and Finance > Investing
Date & country: 24/11/2007, UK
Words: 137


After Hours Dealing
Dealing done after the mandatory quote period which is treated as dealing done on the following business day.

AGM
Annual General Meeting of shareholders which a company must call every year.

AIM
The Alternative Investment Market - Exchange's market for smaller and growing companies which began trading in June 1995.

Allotment Letter
See Renounceable Documents.

APCIMS
Association of Private Client Investment Managers and Stockbrokers - see KEY CONTACTS

Arbitrage
Buying securities in one country, currency or market and selling into another to take advantage of price differences.

Bear
An investor who has sold a security in the hope of buying it back at a lower price as he thinks the market will go down.

Bear Market
A falling market in which bears would prosper.

Best Possible Result
Firms are required to take all reasonable steps to obtain the best possible result in the execution of an order for a customer. The best possible result is not limited purely to execution price but also considers other factors such as costs, speed, likelihood of execution and settlement, size, nature and any other consideration which is considered …

Bid
1. The price at which the market maker will buy shares. 2. An approach made by one company wishing to buy the majority of another company's shares.

Blue Chip
Term for the most highly regarded shares. Originally an American term, from the highest value poker chip.

Bonus Issue
See Capitalisation issue.

Broker-Dealer
A London Stock Exchange member firm, which provides advice and dealing services to the public and which can deal on its own account.

Bull
An investor who has bought a security in the hope of selling it at a higher price as he thinks the market will go up.

Bull Market
A rising market in which bulls would prosper.

Call
The amount due to be paid to a company by the buyer of new or partly-paid shares.

Call Option
The right but not the obligation to buy stock or shares at an agreed price up to a date in the future.

Capital Adequacy
Requirement for firms conducting investment business to have sufficient funds.

Capitalisation Issue
Money from a company's reserves is converted into issued capital, which is then distributed to shareholders in place of a cash dividend. Also known as a bonus or scrip issue.

Commission
The fee that a broker may charge clients for dealing on their behalf.

Commodity
Any item that can be bought and sold. Taken to refer to Exchange-traded items, including sugar, wheat, coffee, tin etc.

Consideration
The money value of a transaction (number of shares multiplied by the price) before adding or deducting commission, stamp duty etc.

Contract Note
A contract note is sent from a member firm to the client no later than the next working day after a transaction is made. Details on the contract note include full title of stock, price, stamp duty (if applicable), consideration, commission, time of deal etc.

Coupon
1. On bearer stocks, the detachable part of the certificate exchangeable for dividends. 2. Denotes the rate of interest on a fixed interest security - a 10% coupon pays interest of 10% a year on the face value of the stock.

Covered Warrants
Covered Warrants allow the buyer the right - but not the obligation - to buy or sell an asset at a specified price on, or before, a specified date.

CREST
The new paperless share settlement system, introduced by CRESTCo in 1996.

Daily Official List
The Daily Official List is the register of listed securities and gives the prices at which all stocks were traded on the previous day. It is produced by Extel.

Debenture
A loan raised by a company, paying a fixed rate of interest and secured on the assets of the company.

Depository Receipts
Marketed internationally to sophisticated investors, these are negotiable certificates that give evidence of ownership of a company's shares. They are a good medium for international investors because they may be more liquid and more easily traded than the shares they represent.

Discount
When the market price of a newly issued security is lower than the issue price.

Dividend
That part of a company's profits after tax distributed to shareholders, usually expressed in pence per share. See Final Dividend and Interim Dividend.

DPS
Dividends Per Share, calculated as the total value of ordinary dividends paid in a specific period divided by the total number of outstanding ordinary shares. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term. Return to the top of the page

EDS
Electronic Data Services, an historical turnover information service representing trading on the London Stock Exchange.

EGM
Extraordinary General Meeting. Any meeting of a company's shareholders other than its AGM.

EPS
Earnings Per Share calculated as the net income attributable to ordinary shares for a specific period divided by the number of outstanding ordinary shares. Companies usually use a weighted average number of shares outstanding over reporting term.

Equity
The risk sharing part of a company's capital, usually referred to as ordinary shares.

Eurobond
A long-term loan issued in a currency other than that of the country or market in which it is issued. Interest is paid without the deduction of tax.

Exchange Traded Fund-iShare
A fund that is traded on a liquid stock exchange like a share. iShares are index funds that trade like shares. Each share represents a portfolio of stocks designed to track closely one specific index. iShares is the brand name of the first ETF's to be launched in the UK.

FESE
Federation of European Stock Exchanges.

FIBV
World Federation of Stock Exchanges.

Final Dividend
The dividend paid by a company at the end of the financial year.

Fixed Interest
Loans issued by a company, the Government (gilts or gilt-edged) or a local authority, where the amount of interest to be paid each year is set on issue. Usually the date of repayment is included in the title.

Flotation
The occasion on which a company's shares are offered on the market for the first time.

FSA
The Financial Services Authority. The FSA regulates the financial services industry and has four objectives under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000: maintaining market confidence; promoting public understanding of the financial system; the protection of consumers; and fighting financial crime.

FTSE Indices
The FTSE indices are run by FTSE International Ltd. They are the: -FTSE 100 -FTSE 250 -FTSE Small Cap -FTSE 350 Yield -FTSE All-Share -FTSE Fledgling -FTSE Eurotrack 100 -FTSE Eurotrack 200

Futures
Securities or goods bought or sold at a fixed price for future delivery. There may be no intention to take them up but to rely upon price changes in order to sell at a profit before delivery.

GDRs
Global Depositary Receipts are negotiable certificates that give evidence of ownership of a company's shares. They are marketed internationally, mainly to financial institutions.

Gearing
A company's debts expressed as a percentage of its equity capital. High gearing means debts are high in relation to equity capital.

GEMMS
Gilt-edged market makers.

Gilts or Gilt-Edged Securities
Loans issued on behalf of the government to fund its spending. They fall into the following categories: 'longs': those with a redemption date greater than 15 years. 'mediums': those with a redemption date between five-15 years. 'shorts': those with a redemption date within five years.

Gross
Before deduction of tax.

Index Linked Gilt
A gilt, the interest and capital of which change in line with the retail price index.

Insider Dealing
The purchase or sale of shares by someone who possesses 'inside' information about the company. This is the information on the company's performance and prospects which has not yet been made available to the market as a whole, and which, if available, might affect the share price. In the UK such deals are a criminal offence.

Interim Dividend
A dividend declared part way through a company's financial year, authorised solely by the directors.

Investment Trust
Company whose sole business consists of buying, selling and holding shares.

IOSCO
International Organisation of Securities Commissions.

Issuing House
An organisation, usually a merchant bank, which arranges the details of an issue of stocks or shares. It will also make sure the listing of that issue complies with Exchange regulations.

LCAC
Listed Companies Advisory Committee.

Letter of Renunciation
This applies to a rights issue and is the form attached to an allotment letter which is completed should the original holder wish to pass entitlement to someone else, or to renounce rights absolutely.

LIFFE
London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange.

Liquidity
Ease with which an item can be traded on the market.

Listed Company
A company whose shares have been admitted to the Daily Official List. It has had to comply with the Exchange's listing regulations.

Listing Particulars
The details a company must publish about itself and any securities it issues before these can be listed in the Daily Official List. Often called a prospectus.

Loan Stock
Stock bearing a fixed rate of interest. Unlike a debenture, loan stocks may be unsecured.

London Market Information Link
The Exchange's new main source of UK financial data for market professionals and information vendors. It is part of the Exchange's Sequence programme. Return to the top of the page

Mandatory Quote Period
The period of time Monday to Friday when all registered market makers in a security must display their prices. For SEAQ the period is from 8.00am - 4.30pm.

Market Maker
An Exchange member firm which is obliged to offer to buy and sell securities in which it is registered throughout the mandatory quote period.

Market Order
An order to buy/sell a specific number of shares at the best available price once the order is received in the market-place. Normally a market order is executed at the quoted price given before the order was entered or at a price close to the quote. However if a security is volatile or the order is above market size, the execution price could be si…

Member Firm
A trading firm of the London Stock exchange which may deal in shares on behalf of its clients or on behalf of the firm itself.

Mid Price
The price half-way between the two prices shown in the Daily Official list under 'Quotation', or the average of both buying and selling prices offered by the market makers. The prices found in newspapers are normally the mid-price.

Minimum Quote Size (MQS)
The minimum number of shares in which market makers are obliged to display prices on SEAQ for securities in which they are registered.

Net Asset Value
The value of a company after all debts have been paid, expressed in pence per share.

New Issue
A company coming to the market for the first time or issuing extra shares.

Nil Paid
A new issue of shares, usually as the result of a rights issue, on which no payment has yet been made.

Nil Value Shares
Shares newly issued by a company. These shares can usually be transferred on renounceable documents.

Nominated Adviser
A London Stock Exchange approved adviser for AIM companies.

Nominee Name
Name in which a security is registered and held in trust on behalf of the rightful owner.

Normal Market Size (NMS)
The SEAQ classification system that replaced the old alpha, beta, gamma system. NMS is a value expressed as a number of shares used to calculate the minimum quote size for each security.

OFEX
See the PLUS market.

Offer
The price at which the market maker will sell shares to investors.

Offer for Sale
A method of bringing a company to the market. The public can apply for shares directly at a fixed price. A prospectus containing details of the sale must be printed in a national newspaper.

Option
The right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell securities at a fixed price within a specified period.

Order Book
The Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service for FTSE 100 shares. (See SETS)

Ordinary Shares
The most common form of share. Holders receive dividends which vary in amount in line with the profitability of the company and recommendation of directors. The holders are the owners of the company.

Par
The nominal value of a security.

PEP Personal Equity Plan
This allows investment in a number of shares. It carries various tax benefits including receiving dividends without paying income tax on the income, and sales free from capital gains tax on the profit.

PIBS
Permanent Interest Bearing Shares are fixed interest securities issued by Building Societies to raise capital. PIBS are listed and traded on the London Stock Exchange.

Portfolio
A collection of securities owned by an investor.

POTAM
Panel on Take-overs and Mergers. It regulates conduct of take-overs and is non-statutory.

Preference Shares
These are normally fixed-income shares whose holders have the right to receive dividends before ordinary shareholders but after debenture and loan stock holders have received their interest.

Premium
If the market price of a new security is higher than the usual price, the difference is the premium. If it is lower, the difference is called the discount.

Price Sensitive Information
Information that has to be reported to the Exchange's Regulatory News Service, that may have an effect on a company's share price.

Price-Earnings Ratio (P-E Ratio)
The P/E ratio is a measure of the level of confidence investors have in a company (rightly or wrongly). Generally, the higher the figure, the higher the confidence. It is worked out by dividing the current share price by the last published earnings per share which is net profit divided by the number of ordinary shares.

Primary Market
The function of a stock exchange in bringing securities to the market for the first time. Money is being raised either for the founders of the company or to fund future growth.

Private Company
A company which is not a public company and which is not allowed to offer its shares to the general public.

Privatisation
Conversion of a state run company to a public limited company status often accompanied by a sale of its shares to the public.

ProShare
An independent organisation which promotes share ownership among individual investors, including employees.

Prospectus
Document giving the details that a company is required to make public to support a new issue of shares. See Listing Particulars.

Proxy
A person empowered by a shareholder to vote on his behalf at company meetings.

Public Limited Company (plc)
A company whose shares may be purchased by the public and traded freely on the open market and whose share capital is not less than a statutory minimum.