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Chris Colton - Orthopaedic Trauma Terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Orthopaedic Trauma
Date & country: 24/11/2007, UK
Words: 69


Anaerobic
Those metabolic processes which are not dependent on oxygen. Anaerobic organisms can therefore thrive in tissues which are hypoxic or anoxic.

Articular Fracture
The articular surface is disrupted and completely separated from the diaphysis. The severity of these fractures depends on whether their articular and metaphyseal components are simple or multifragmentary.

Autograft
Graft of tissue from one site to another within the same individual (homograft

Avulsion
Pulling off

Broad Spectrum
Refers to antibiotics which are active against a wide spectrum of different organisms.

Causalgia
see Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Chondral
Pertaining to cartilage. Consisting of cartilage.

Compartment syndrome
see Muscle Compartment

Compression Screw
â€` see Lag screw.

Continuous Passive Motion
see C.P.M.

Cortex
â€` see Cortical bone

Cytoplasm
The non-nuclear substance of a cell.

Debricolage
A French term signifying the process of mechanical failure of an internal fixation prior to the onset of solid bone healing.

Direct healing
A type of fracture healing observed with absolutely stable (rigid) internal fixation.

Elastic deformation
see Plastic deformation

Epiphysis
The end of a long bone that bears the articular component (joint). The epiphysis develops embryologically from the cartilaginous element between the joint surface and the growth plate â€` see Metaphysis.

Extensor
Adjective from the noun 'extension'. The muscles which cause extension of a part are its extensor muscles; the surface of a part where those muscles are found is sometimes called the extensor surface.

Flexion
The movement of an articulation that causes the relationship between part above the joint and the part below the joint to become more angulated.

Flexor
Adjective from the noun 'flexion'. The muscles which cause flexion of a part are flexor muscles; the surface of a part where those rnuscles are found is sometimes called the flexor surface.

Floating Knee
Isolation of the knee joint from the remainder of the skeleton by fractures of the femur and the tibia in the same limb.

Fracture, articular
involves the articular surface. They are subdivided into partial and complete.

Fusion
see Arthrodesis

Galeazzi injury
A fracture of the radial shaft associated with a dislocation of the inferior radio-ulnar joint. Its first description is attributed to Galeazzi (1934). Sometimes referred to as the “reversed Monteggia�

Gliding splint
A splint (such as an unlocked intramedullary nail) which allows for axial shortening. Such a splint provides the possibility for the re-establishment of bony coaptation under conditions of fragment end shortening due to bone surface resorption.

Haematogenous
Blood-borne.

Haversian System
The cortical bone is composed of a system of small channels (osteons) about 0.1 mm in diameter. These channels contain the blood vessels and are remodelled after a disturbance of the blood supply to bone. There is a natural turnover of the Haversian systems by continuous osteonal remodelling; this process is part of the dynamic and metabolic nature…

Heterograft
â€` see Allograft

Homograft –
see Allograft

Horizontal
Parallel with the horizon: unrelated to the anatomical position.

Impacted fracture
See Fracture impacted

Ischaemia
Absence of blood flow.

Malunion
Consolidation of a fracture in a position of deformity.

Microvascular
Pertaining to microscopic blood

Midline
The centre line of the body in the anatomical position.

Multifragmentary fracture
A term usually reserved for fractures which have one or more dissociated intermediate fragments.

NSAIDS
non-steroidal inflammatory drugs. See http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-1

ORIF
A widely used abbreviation for open reduction and internal fixation (osteosynthesis).

Osteoblast
A cell that forms new bone

Osteoblastic
Producing bone.

Osteoporosis
A reduction in bone mass. It is a natural aging process but may be pathological. It can result in pathological fracture (most fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly are due to osteoporosis plus minimal trauma). See Osteopaenia

Osteotomy
Controlled surgical division of a bone.

Overbending (
of plate)

Pathological fracture
A fracture through bone which is abnormal as a result of a pathological process. It may be the result of the application of a force less than that which would be required to produce a fracture in a corresponding normal bone.

Periosteal
Adjective derived from periosteum

Plafond (Fr.)
Literally “ceiling�: used to denote the horizontal portion of tge distal tibial articular surface. See Pilon

Polytrauma
Multiple injuries to one or more body systems. An Injury Severity Score (ISS) of more than 16 is usually taken to indicate polytrauma.

Precise reduction
see Anatomical reduction

Prophylactic
Preventive.

Pseudarthrosis
(see also Delayed Union

Pure depression
An articular fracture in which there is depression alone of the articular surface without split â€` see Impacted fracture

Reduction
The realignment of a displaced fracture or a dislocated joint.

Relative Stability
â€` see Stability of fixation

Resorption (of bone)
The process of bone removal includes the dissolution of mineral and matrix and their uptake into the cell (phagocytosis). The cells responsible for this process are osteoclasts.

Rigid fixation
A fixation of a fracture which allows little or no deformation under load â€` see Stability of fixation.

Rigid implants
In general implants are considered to be rigid when they are made of metals. The implant

Rigidity
This term is often used synonymously with stiffness. Some (Timoshenko 1941) feel that its use should be confined to considerations of shear (e.g. at the interface of plate and bone).

Shoulder examination
- see http://www.usask.ca/cme/articles/fmse/index.php

Simple (single) fracture
A disruption of bone with only two main fragments. Formerly used to denote a fracture that was not “compound� (or open)

Split depression
A combination of split and depression in an articular fracture â€` see Pure split

Spondylolysis
the presence of a loss of continuity of the pars interarticularis of a vertebral body. This can lead to instability and forward slip of one vertebral body on the one below it - spondylolisthesis

Spondylosis
degenerative change at one or more levels in the spinal column: degenerative intervertebral disc disease

Stability, absolute
The compressed surfaces of the fracture do not displace under applied functional load. The definition of absolute stability applies only to a given time and at a given site: some areas of a fracture may displace in relation to each other whilst other areas of the same fracture locus may not; different areas may also exhibit different displacements …

Subchondral
means beneath the cartilage

Synovectomy
Excision of the synovial membrane. Synovial joint

Threaded hole
Discussed in conjunction with Pilot hole

Tibial spine
:See Tibial intercondylar eminence

Trans-cortex
see Far Cortex

Xenograft
A graft of tissue from an individual of one species (donor) to a recipient (host) of another species.

Zone of injury
The entire volume of bone and soft tissue damaged by energy transfer during trauma.