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Chris Colton - Orthopaedic Trauma Terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Orthopaedic Trauma
Date & country: 24/11/2007, UK
Those metabolic processes which are not dependent on oxygen. Anaerobic organisms can therefore thrive in tissues which are hypoxic or anoxic.
The articular surface is disrupted and completely separated from the diaphysis. The severity of these fractures depends on whether their articular and metaphyseal components are simple or multifragmentary.
Graft of tissue from one site to another within the same individual (homograft
Refers to antibiotics which are active against a wide spectrum of different organisms.
see Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Pertaining to cartilage. Consisting of cartilage.
see Muscle Compartment
â€` see Lag screw.
Continuous Passive Motion
â€` see Cortical bone
The non-nuclear substance of a cell.
A French term signifying the process of mechanical failure of an internal fixation prior to the onset of solid bone healing.
A type of fracture healing observed with absolutely stable (rigid) internal fixation.
see Plastic deformation
The end of a long bone that bears the articular component (joint). The epiphysis develops embryologically from the cartilaginous element between the joint surface and the growth plate â€` see Metaphysis.
Adjective from the noun 'extension'. The muscles which cause extension of a part are its extensor muscles; the surface of a part where those muscles are found is sometimes called the extensor surface.
The movement of an articulation that causes the relationship between part above the joint and the part below the joint to become more angulated.
Adjective from the noun 'flexion'. The muscles which cause flexion of a part are flexor muscles; the surface of a part where those rnuscles are found is sometimes called the flexor surface.
Isolation of the knee joint from the remainder of the skeleton by fractures of the femur and the tibia in the same limb.
involves the articular surface. They are subdivided into partial and complete.
A fracture of the radial shaft associated with a dislocation of the inferior radio-ulnar joint. Its first description is attributed to Galeazzi (1934). Sometimes referred to as the â€œreversed Monteggiaâ€?
A splint (such as an unlocked intramedullary nail) which allows for axial shortening. Such a splint provides the possibility for the re-establishment of bony coaptation under conditions of fragment end shortening due to bone surface resorption.
The cortical bone is composed of a system of small channels (osteons) about 0.1 mm in diameter. These channels contain the blood vessels and are remodelled after a disturbance of the blood supply to bone. There is a natural turnover of the Haversian systems by continuous osteonal remodelling; this process is part of the dynamic and metabolic natureâ€¦
â€` see Allograft
Parallel with the horizon: unrelated to the anatomical position.
See Fracture impacted
Absence of blood flow.
Consolidation of a fracture in a position of deformity.
Pertaining to microscopic blood
The centre line of the body in the anatomical position.
A term usually reserved for fractures which have one or more dissociated intermediate fragments.
non-steroidal inflammatory drugs. See http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-1
A widely used abbreviation for open reduction and internal fixation (osteosynthesis).
A cell that forms new bone
A reduction in bone mass. It is a natural aging process but may be pathological. It can result in pathological fracture (most fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly are due to osteoporosis plus minimal trauma). See Osteopaenia
Controlled surgical division of a bone.
A fracture through bone which is abnormal as a result of a pathological process. It may be the result of the application of a force less than that which would be required to produce a fracture in a corresponding normal bone.
Adjective derived from periosteum
Literally â€œceilingâ€?: used to denote the horizontal portion of tge distal tibial articular surface. See Pilon
Multiple injuries to one or more body systems. An Injury Severity Score (ISS) of more than 16 is usually taken to indicate polytrauma.
see Anatomical reduction
(see also Delayed Union
An articular fracture in which there is depression alone of the articular surface without split â€` see Impacted fracture
The realignment of a displaced fracture or a dislocated joint.
â€` see Stability of fixation
Resorption (of bone)
The process of bone removal includes the dissolution of mineral and matrix and their uptake into the cell (phagocytosis). The cells responsible for this process are osteoclasts.
A fixation of a fracture which allows little or no deformation under load â€` see Stability of fixation.
In general implants are considered to be rigid when they are made of metals. The implant
This term is often used synonymously with stiffness. Some (Timoshenko 1941) feel that its use should be confined to considerations of shear (e.g. at the interface of plate and bone).
- see http://www.usask.ca/cme/articles/fmse/index.php
Simple (single) fracture
A disruption of bone with only two main fragments. Formerly used to denote a fracture that was not â€œcompoundâ€? (or open)
A combination of split and depression in an articular fracture â€` see Pure split
the presence of a loss of continuity of the pars interarticularis of a vertebral body. This can lead to instability and forward slip of one vertebral body on the one below it - spondylolisthesis
degenerative change at one or more levels in the spinal column: degenerative intervertebral disc disease
The compressed surfaces of the fracture do not displace under applied functional load. The definition of absolute stability applies only to a given time and at a given site: some areas of a fracture may displace in relation to each other whilst other areas of the same fracture locus may not; different areas may also exhibit different displacements â€¦
means beneath the cartilage
Excision of the synovial membrane. Synovial joint
Discussed in conjunction with Pilot hole
:See Tibial intercondylar eminence
see Far Cortex
A graft of tissue from an individual of one species (donor) to a recipient (host) of another species.
Zone of injury
The entire volume of bone and soft tissue damaged by energy transfer during trauma.