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Aplastic Anaemia and Myelodysplasia Glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Aplastic Anaemia and Myelodysplasia
Date & country: 20/11/2007, uk
Words: 119


Ablation
Noun: In medical terms this means the removal by surgery, radiation or otherwise of dead, diseased or unwanted tissue. Immunosuppressive therapy results in the ablation of one's immune system .

Acute GVHD
The primary complication following a Bone Marrow Transplant for aplastic anaemia is Graft-Versus-Host disease (GVHD). In GVHD, the donor's bone marrow attacks the patient's organs and tissues, impairing their ability to function, and increasing the risk of infection. Depending on its severity, GVHD can be a temporary inconvenience or a life-threate…

Allogenic Related
Adjective: Donated bone marrow from a family member especially a brother or sister. Genetically, it's not the same, but being related, many of the genetic points are held in common. If possible this is the best source of bone marrow transplant next to having an identical twins bone marrow.

Allogenic Unrelated
Adjective: Genetically unlike and not from a family member. Referring to bone marrow transplants, the bone marrow bank has lists of individuals who have donated bone marrow and when a bone marrow transplant is needed, the genetic similarities are compared using the Class 1 and Class 2 tissue typing with those on record at these banks and a match is…

AML
Noun: Abbreviation for ' Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia '. It is a form of leukaemia that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of myeloblasts, especially in the bone marrow and blood.

Amphotericin
Noun: An antifungal antibiotic which is not absorbed by the gut so it must be injected. It is active against most deep-seated yeast and fungal infections. Diet advice given by the British Medical Association says that when given by injection, Amphotericin may reduce the levels of potassium and magnesium in the blood. To correct this, mineral supple…

Anaemia
Noun: A weak condition caused by not enough red cells in the blood or by a loss of blood. It is characterised by pallor , palpitation of the heart, and a tendency to fatigue.

Anaphylaxis
Noun: A rare, severe, frightening and possibly life threatening allergic reaction. It sometimes occurs in people who have an extreme sensitivity to a particular substance. Serum sickness, such as experienced by those taking Antilymphocyte Globulin, is an instance of relatively mild anaphylaxis. It can also occur as a reaction to an injected drug su…

ANC
Noun: an abbreviation for Absolute Neutrophil Count. Patients with Aplastic Anaemia and Myelodysplasia have a low ANC.

Antilymphocyte Globulin
Noun: An immunosuppressant which is used to reduce the body's natural immunity in patients who receive a bone marrow transplant or undergo treatment for Aplastic Anaemia It reduces the activity of the lymphocytes which are attacking bone marrow stem cells. ( See also Antithymocyte Globulin for more details. The two words are used to describe the sa…

Antithymocyte Globulin
Noun: An immunosuppressant which is used to reduce the body's natural immunity in patients who receive a bone marrow transplant or undergo treatment for Aplastic Anaemia It reduces the activity of the T lymphocytes which are attacking bone marrow stem cells. I spoke to Dr. Marsh, who is doing research on AA & MDS with Professor Gordon Smith and she…

Apheresis Unit
Noun: An apheresis unit is a machine for removing unwanted substances from the blood. Blood is withdrawn from the person in the same way as for a blood donation, and the blood is passed through a cell separator that removes the plasma (the fluid portion, which contains the antibodies ). The formed elements (blood cells) are reconstituted with a pla…

Aphthous Ulcers
Noun: Aphthous ulcers are very common. Typically, they are a small shallow ulcer with a white or whitish/yellow base surrounded by a reddish border occurring on the inside of the mouth. Most causes of aphthous ulcers are unknown but can occur if your immune system is low. Tell your Doctor about them as there are drugs which have been used successfu…

Aspergillosis
Noun: An infection caused by aspergillus, a fungus which grows in decaying vegetation. The spores of this fungus are usually present in the air all the year round. Aspergillus is harmless to healthy people but causes trouble in certain circumstances. It may cause serious and often fatal infection in people with reduced resistance, such as those bei…

ATG
Noun: An abbreviation of Antithymocyte globulin .

Autoimmune
Adjective: Of, having to do with, or caused by antibodies which are attacking one's own body. It is thought by some experts that Aplastic Anaemia is an autoimmune disease.

Autologous
Adjective: Transplanted from the same person's body such as an autologous graft. Some cancer patients who are to get radiation treatment will have a quantity of their bone marrow taken out for future transplanting back in again. The radiation kills off the stem cells and as their own bone marrow is put back in there is no problem with graft-versus-…

Avascular Necrosis
Noun: Death of bone owing to deficient blood supply, usually following an injury but it can also occur in cases of severe anaemia.

Azithromycin
Noun: Azithromycin is a drug used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It can be used to treat infections of the throat, types of pneumonia, influenza and skin infections.

Band Cell
Noun: also a band, a stab, a stab cell, a band form. See stab cell for definition and pictures.

Biopsy
Noun: The surgical removal of tissue from a living body for examination and diagnosis. Also the medical examination of this tissue.

Blood
Noun: Blood is essential for life. Blood carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and chemicals to each of the sixty billion cells throughout the body. It plays an essential part in protecting the body from infection. Blood also helps the body remove waste and toxins. There are close to 30 trillion blood cells in an adult. Each cubic millimetre of blood…

Blood Test
Noun: An action where one or more samples of blood are taken in order to determine blood levels, illness, tissue type, blood type or abnormalities.

BMT
Abbreviation: Bone Marrow Transplant

Buffy Coat
Noun: The superficial layer of yellowish or buff coagulated (clotted) plasma from which the red blood cells have settled out in slowly coagulated blood. It forms the scab on a scrape.

Cannula
Noun: A hollow tube for insertion into the body by which fluids are introduced or removed. When you have a blood transfusion , a plastic cannula is inserted into your arm. With it blood can be given easily.

CBC
Noun: An abbreviation for complete blood count. This determines whether the proper number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are present in the patients blood.

Central Line
Noun: A central venous catheter

Class 2 Tissue Typing
Noun: Another procedure for examining the genetic markers on the surface of white blood cells called the HLA - antigens (Human leukocyte antigens). This results in a category with 'D' numbers specifying another set of genetic markers on the chromosomes.

Contraindications
Noun: Any factor in a patient's condition that makes it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment - such as drug therapy or surgery. Drugs often have contraindications on the bottle or on a leaflet that goes with the bottle.

Cytogenic
Adjective: 1. characterised by the formation of cells. 2. producing cells.

Differentiation
Verb: The act or process of acquiring completely individual characteristics, such as occurs when stem cells progress to become the various types of blood cells. Through differentiation, the stem cells create one of the many types blood cells.

Diflucan
Noun: The trade name for the antifungal drug Fluconazole .

Dysplasia
Noun: Any abnormality of growth. Abnormal cell features include the size, shape, and rate of multiplication.

Ecchymoses (Ek' E Mo' Sis)
Noun: A bruise. A discoloration caused by the breaking of tiny blood vessels underneath the skin, as in a bruise. With aplastic anaemia or myelodysplasia , the lack of platelets is easily noticed by the spontaneous bruising and the small reddish or purplish spots on the skin or inside the mouth called petechiae . After a platelet transfusion these …

Emla Cream
Noun: A cream applied to the surface of the skin containing a mixture of local anaesthetics. It is particularly useful for children as it allows for painful tests and biopsies to be performed with minimal pain and discomfort.

Engraftment
Noun: When bone marrow that is infused during a BMT 'takes' or is accepted by the patient and begins producing blood cells.

EPO
Noun: A drug which is a genetically engineered version of a natural hormone, erythropoietin , which stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. The synthetic version of the hormone, EPO, is used to treat severe anaemia. Also called Eprex and Epoetin. A research alert in May 1, 2001 stated that Epoetin alfa, reduces the need for transfusi…

Epoetin
See EPO

Eprex 4000
See EPO

Erythroid
Adjective: Having to do with red blood cells.

Erythroid Islands
Noun: Groups of red blood cells found in the bone marrow .

Etiology
Noun: The science that deals with the theory, origins, or causes of diseases. Also the cause of a disease.

Fibroblast
Noun: One of the cells from which fibrous tissue is immediately formed after an injury. In the outer layer of the skin, the cells called fibroblasts enter a wound and build scar tissue by manufacturing collagen fibres and other proteins.

Fungus
Noun: A primitive life form that can cause infection in the body. They get their nourishment from dead or living organic matter. Fungi that sometimes cause post-transplant infections are Candida and Aspergillus fungi.

Gentamicin
Noun: Gentamicin is a type of antibiotic. The injectable form is usually reserved for treatment, in hospital, of serious or complicated infections. These include lung, urinary tract, bone, joint, and wound infections and illnesses like Septicaemia . Gentamicin given by injection can have serious adverse effects on the ears, which may lead to damage…

Gm-Csf
Noun: Granulocyte - macrophage colony-stimulating factor. See G-CSF for more information. GM - CSF is used to accelerate recovery of white blood cell counts and reduce the incidence of infection after a bone marrow transplant.

GOSH
Noun: Great Ormand Street Hospital. A children's hospital.

Graft Facilitating Cells
Noun: Information from the the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics at the University of Louisville states that they use a procedure to reduce the incidence of both acute and chronic GVHD by a process of depleting the T lymphocytes in the donor's bone marrow prior to transplantation. This process requires total body irradiation. However, they found …

Graft Versus Host Disease
Noun: See Acute Graft Versus Host Disease .

Gram Positive-Negative Bacteria
Noun: Bacteria are categorised into Gram Positive and Gram Negative. The bacteria is first stained with a violet dye and then treated with Gram's iodine solution and then washed with alcohol. Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet dye; Gram-negative bacteria species lose it. Some antibiotics are more effective at handling Gram-positive bacteria a…

GVHD
Graft-versus-host disease

GVL
Graft-versus-leukaemia. The GVHD reaction also has positive aspects. If the patient has leukaemia or some other cancers, while the new white blood cells produced by the implanted stem cells attacks the patient, the new stem cells will often also attack the patients cancer cells that still may be present after the transplant. This was first document…

Haemochromatosis
Noun: A disease characterised by a bronzing of the skin, liver degeneration and hardening, and often diabetes, caused by the absorption of an excessive amount of iron by the bloodstream and the depositing the iron containing pigments in the skin, liver and in other organs and tissues. Also known as Bronze Diabetes. See Haemosiderosis .

HAV
Noun: Abbreviation for Hepatitis 'A' Virus. Hepatitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, infestation with parasites, chemicals (alcohol or drugs), toxins, or immune diseases. It can be short term (acute), long term ( chronic ), or life threatening. Hepatitis can cause permanent liver damage. There are a number of different types of Hep…

HCV
Noun: Abbreviation for Hepatitis 'C' Virus. See HAV for a more complete explanation.

Histocompatibility
Noun: The condition in which grafted or transplanted tissue is accepted by surrounding tissue. What has been transplanted is compatible with the rest of the body.

Histocompatibility Antigens
Noun: A group of proteins that are naturally present within tissues and that have a role in the immune system . The main group of histocompatibility antigens is known as the HLA . Histocompatibility antigens within the HLA - A, B and C range are present on virtually all living cells in the body. They are essential for the function of the killer T c…

Hla Tissue Typing
Noun: Human Leukocyte Antigen tissue typing. See Class 1 and Class 2 Tissue typing

Hydrocortisone
Noun: An adrenal hormone derived from cortisone, used in treating arthritis and other inflammations. The British Medical Association says that salt intake may need to be restricted when Hydrocortisone is taken by mouth. It may also be necessary to take potassium supplements. It commonly causes indigestion, weight gain and acne. If you find you have…

Hypocellular
Adjective: Showing a low level of all cells. AA and MDS patients are all hypocellular.

Killer T-Cells
(also called cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or CTLs), recognise and destroy abnormal or infected cells once it has received permission from a helper T-cell. Most of the body's white cells will recognise other 'self' cells and leave them alone but with the assistance of 'Helper T cells', Killer T cells seek out and destroy any of the body cells that have …

Lymphadenopathy
Noun: Any disease condition of the lymph nodes .

Macrocyte
Noun: An abnormally large red blood cell found in the blood, especially in some forms of anaemia.

Marrow Hypoplasia
Noun: A condition where the bone marrow is not forming properly. It is underdeveloped. Patients with AA and MDS have marrow hypoplasia as the stem cells have died or been killed off resulting in reduced blood cell formation. See Hypoplasia .

Megakaryopoiesis
Noun: The production of platelets by the megakaryocytes.

Menorrhagia
Noun: A condition where there is an excessive menstrual discharge.

Methotrexate
Noun: An anticancer drug used in treating certain forms of leukaemia . As with most anticancer drugs, methotrexate affects both healthy and cancerous cells, so that its usefulness is limited by its adverse effects and toxicity. It has been reported to reduce the IQ of children. It may also reduce fertility by depressing sperm and egg development. I…

Methylprednisolone
Noun: A corticosteroid drug used in the treatment of severe asthma, skin inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease and types of arthritis. Sometimes uses in immunosuppressive therapy . See Prednisolone for typical corticosteroid drug adverse effects.

Micturition
Noun: The act of passing urine.

MRI
Noun: Abbreviation for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cross sectional images of any area of the body can be obtained for examination without any hazard to the patient using magnetic fields and radio waves.

MUD
Noun: Abbreviation for Matched Unrelated Donor.

Myeloblastic Leukaemia
Noun: Myeloblastic leukaemia is a form of leukaemia that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of myeloblast s especially in bone marrow and blood -- abbreviation AML; called also acute myelogenous leukaemia , acute myelocytic leukaemia or acute myeloid leukaemia.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Noun: A group of disorders characterised by low white blood cell counts, low platelet counts, low red blood cell counts , and in some cases, increased monocytes. See Myelodysplasia .

Myeloid Disorder
Noun: A disease such a myeloid leukaemia where there is an excessive production of leukocyte s in the bone marrow .

Nandrolone
Noun: It is a steroid that promotes chemical reactions with protein and also promotes skeletal growth. It is also used to treat certain types of anaemia. The possible adverse effects include swollen ankles, nausea and vomiting, jaundice , and aggressive behaviour. In men, Nandrolone may cause difficulty in passing urine. In women, it may cause irre…

Natural Killer Cells - (NK) Cells
are actually primitive T-cells that are free to attack indiscriminately without requiring permission from a helper T-cell. This makes them the immune system's first line of defense. Since they lack receptors for identifying antigens, NK cells work best when their target has first been identified by macrophages and helper T-cells. These cells releas…

Neutropenic Diet
Noun: Neutropenic refers to neutrophils . The patient with AA or MDS has a very low immune system due to the low neutrophil count. He or she suffers with neutropenia . For this reason, they must be very alert to hygiene and the food that they eat.

Normochromic
Adjective: Normal in colour. Said of the blood when the haemoglobin level is within normal limits.

Normocytic
Adjective: Doctor talk for a red blood cell that is of normal size, shape and colour.

Oxymethalone
Noun: A drug which is a synthetic male hormone which enhances and repairs the body tissue-building process. It is used to medically treat anaemia and other conditions.

Pancytopenia
Noun: A condition where there is a reduction in the number of all types of blood cells due to failure of bone marrow formation. A person with AA has pancytopenia.

Pathology
Noun: 1. The study of the causes and nature of diseases, especially the structural and functional changes brought about by diseases. Human pathology is a branch of medicine. 2. The unhealthy conditions and processes caused by a disease, especially changes in the tissues and organs of the body.

Phagocytize
Verb: To engulf and destroy dangerous micro-organisms or cells. Done by neutrophils and macrophages.

Pheresis
Noun: Pheresis is the process of removing blood from a donor's body and separating the blood components (the red , white cells or the platelets) and then transfusing the remaining blood components back into the donor.

Piriton
Noun: Trade name for a drug used for the relief of allergy and in the emergency treatment of the severe reaction some people get from bee stings, food allergies such as nuts, and also the reaction they get to some drugs such as penicillin. ALG / ATG can cause a fairly severe rash so Piriton may be given to suppress these. It sometimes causes drowsi…

Platelet Pheresis
Noun: Uses the process of pheresis to separate out the red and white blood cells. The remaining platelets are then transfused back into the patient.

Pluripotent
Adjective: Capable of developing, growing, or producing in a number of ways. Pluripotent stem cells can become all types of blood cells. See picture of Haematopoiesis .

PMN
Noun: An abbreviation of the word polymorphonuclear neutrophil .

PNH
Noun: An abbreviation for paroxysmal nocturnal haemogloburinaemia

POLY
Noun: An shortening of the word polymorphonuclear neutrophil.

Potassium Deficiency
Can occur from taking diuretics such as the drug Frusemide while having treatment or long-term use of corticosteroids . Early symptoms of potassium deficiency may include muscle weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and mental confusion. Impairment of nerve and muscle function may progress to cause disturbances of the heart rhythm and paralysis of the skel…

Prednisolone
Noun: A powerful corticosteroid drug which reduces inflammation that the ALG treatment may cause, by blocking the action of chemicals called ' prostaglandins ' that are responsible for triggering the inflammatory response.

Proerythroblast
Noun: A nucleated precursor to the erythrocyte . See Haematopoiesis for picture. Vitamin B12 is essential for the change from proerythroblast to normoblast and then to erythrocyte. Iron, thyroxin and vitamin C are also necessary for its perfect structure.

Promyelocyte
Noun: A precursor to the myelocyte which in turn through mitosis becomes either a neutrophil , a eosinophil or a basophil white blood cell . See Haematopoiesis for picture.

Prophylactic
Noun: A medicine, treatment, or device that protects against disease.

Prostaglandin
Noun: One of a group of fatty acids that is made naturally in the body and that acts in a similar way to hormones. They were first discovered in sperm but are now known to occur in may different body tissues including the uterus, brain, and kidneys. Prostaglandins produce a wide range of effects on the body, including causing pain and inflammation …

Rabbit Alg
Noun: Antilymphocyte Globulin produced from rabbits.

RAEB
Noun: Abbreviation of Refractory Anaemia with Excess Blasts . One of the group of related bone marrow diseases under the heading of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

RAEB-t
Noun: Abbreviation of Refractory Anaemia with Excess Blasts in Transformation . One of the group of related bone marrow diseases under the heading of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.