Copy of `J. Gilbertson - Health and safety glossary`

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J. Gilbertson - Health and safety glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Health and Safety Sound
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 694


Neighbour Test
See Neighbour Principle.

Neoplasm
A “new growth�. A term associated with the growth of tumours in body tissue. See Cancer.

Neoplastic Disease
See Cancer.

Neutron
An elementary particle with unit atomic mass approximately and no electric charge.

Newtonian Behaviour
The behaviour of large particles in air as they set up turbulence and eddies and are greatly affected by drag. The resistance of the air is proportional to the square of the velocity and the square of the diameter of the particle.

Noise
Subjective description given to unwanted sound.

Noise Assessment
The determination of the noise exposure of a person or a group of persons. A legal requirement under the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 where the noise level is likely to be greater than or equal to the first action level. Or greater than or equal to the peak action level.

Noise Refuge
See Acoustic Haven.

Noise Survey
A preliminary activity prior to a full noise assessment which looks at noise levels at specified locations in a work area.

Non-ionising Radiation
Radiation falling within the upper range of the electromagnetic spectrum which does not have the capacity to cause ionisation eg infra red and ultra violet.

Notifiable Disease
A disease prescribed by the Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1998 eg tetanus.

Nucleus
The positively charged core of an atom which occupies little of the volume but contains most of the mass.

Nucleus of a Cell
The controlling centre of the basic unit of tissue which contains the DNA.

Nuisance Noise
A noise which is unlikely to cause hearing damage but which is annoying to those in the area.

Obiter Dictum
Remarks made by judges in the summing up of a case which are ‘by the way` and not essential elements of the decision itself. These remarks often become persuasive precedents depending upon the seniority of the judge but they are not part of the ratio decidendi.

Objective Measures
Performance measures which are detached from the observer`s personal judgement eg existence of ‘X` in fact.

Obstructive Airway Disease
See Occupational Asthma

Occupational Asthma
A disorder of breathing characterised by a narrowing of the airways due to swelling of the airway wall. The condition is triggered by occupational exposure to allergens and some chemical substances.

Occupational Exposure Limit
A level of exposure expressed as a WEL which is used to determine the adequacy of control of exposure by inhalation in the workplace. OELs are specified in official guidance EH40.

Occupational Hygienist
One who practices occupational hygiene.

Octave Band
The division of the frequency range of noise into bands with the upper frequency of each band being twice that of the lower frequency.

Octave Band Centre Frequency
The frequency at the centre of an octave band. Used as a point in the measurement of noise.

OEL
Occupational Exposure Limit.

Off The Job Training
Training which takes the trainee away from the distractions of work activity into a formal classroom environment.

Official Journal
Official journal of the European Union in which a directive is published once it has been adopted.

Ohm's Law
The potential difference between the ends of a resistance (or conductor) is directly proportional to the current flowing - assuming constant temperature. This relationship is given by the equation: Voltage = current x resistance.

Oil Acne
Skin infection developing from plugged pores which become infected and produce blackheads and pustules. Dirty work involving mineral oils can lead to its development particularly on forearms and thighs.

On The Job Training
Training which takes place in the workplace at the trainee`s workstation usually whilst engaged in normal duties.

On-line Processing
Moment to moment decision making which requires little analysis of the outcomes but has the disadvantage that an inappropriate choice may be made on the spur of the moment.

Open Face Head
Sampling head which accommodates filters of 25 and 37 mm diameter for sampling general or ‘nuisance` dusts where high concentrations of larger sized particles are expected. Open face with cowl is more likely to be seen sampling for asbestos. The cowl protects the face of the filter and gives even distribution of airflow.

Open System
A system that interacts with and depends upon exchanges with its environment. A flexible and adaptive system.

Operant Conditioning
A learning process observed by Skinner in which appropriate or desired behaviour is rewarded when it is observed thus making it more likely that the behaviour be repeated.

Organisation
The arrangement of human and physical resources based upon the need to control and integrate the activities of individuals and groups.

Over Three Day Injury
A notifiable injury which causes absence from work or the inability to perform normal duties for a period of more than 3 days excluding the day of the injury but including rest days (RIDDOR).

Overhead Travelling Crane
Overhead (or gantry) cranes run on tracks which span the workshop. They are often capable of withstanding high stresses but all of the components must be taken into account when assessing strength. This includes the tracks on which the crane runs and the points at which they are fixed to the building structure.

Oxidising Agent
A chemical substance which promotes a combustion reaction when mixed with a combustible material.

Ozone
A form of oxygen gas which occurs naturally in very small quantities in air. Most of the ozone is in the stratosphere where it forms the ozone layer.

Ozone Detector
A direct reading instrument unique to ozone which works on the principle of chemiluminescence. Air is drawn into a reaction chamber where the ozone (if present) is reacted with ethylene. The product of this is in a high energy state and rapid return to its ground state occurs with the emission of light. This emission is amplified and measured.

Paper Tape Monitor
A direct reading instrument for vapour which involves exposing a roll of chemically treated paper tape to a flow of contaminated air. As the air filters through the tape the paper stains black in the presence of the contaminant. The tape advances until the stain is directly above a light source where a detector picks up the amount of light transmitted through the paper (light varies according to the depth of stain).

Particulate Radiation
Sub-atomic particles emitted from a radio-active material which cause ionisation in the absorbing medium. See Alpha Radiation and Beta Radiation.

Parts Per Million
Units of measurement for volumetric concentration of airborne contaminant.

Pascal (Pa)
Unit of measurement of sound pressure.

Passive Sampler
A device used to collect air samples without the aid of a pump. Gas is adsorbed or absorbed by the collecting medium at a rate of diffusion across a well defined diffusion path.

Pathogen
An organism which can infect a host and cause disease.

Peak Action Level
A point at or above which an employer must take action to reduce the noise exposure of the workforce by means other than PPE. A peak sound pressure level of 200 pascals (at time of going to print).[2] See also First Action Level and Second Action Level.

Peak Sound Pressure Level
The maximum value reached by the sound pressure at any instant during a measurement.

Peer Group
The group to which an individual belongs.

Peer Group Pressure
The pressure exerted by a group (sometimes coercive) on its members to ensure compliance with the group`s values and norms.

Perception
A psychological process by which we make sense of what we are experiencing.

Perceptual Distortion
A type of error created by the altered perception of data because of the way the information is presented.

Performance Monitoring
A process by which an organisation determines its success or failure in managing OH&S. See Proactive Monitoring and Reactive Monitoring.

Permanent Threshold Shift
Permanent irreversible hearing loss occurring after prolonged exposure to high noise levels. See Temporary Threshold Shift.

Permit to Work
A formal authority to operate a planned procedure which is designed to protect personnel working in hazardous areas or activities.

Peroxidation
A slow reaction of a peroxidisable chemical with air to form peroxides which may separate or crystallise to form an explosive or even detonative component.

Person Culture
A style of organisational behaviour described by Charles Handy which strives to meet the needs of individuals. Often associated with government driven services.

Personal Injury
Any disease or impairment of a person`s physical or mental condition (HASAWA s53). See Major Injury and Over Three Day Injury.

Personal Protective Equipment
All equipment (including clothing affording protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work and which protects a person against one or more risks to their health and safety.

Personal Sampling
The collection of samples of airborne concentrations of substances hazardous to health by attaching a small collector in the breathing zone of the worker under observation.

Photo-electric Device
Protective (trip) device utilising a beam or beams of light (usually infrared) between a light source and a photo-sensitive cell. If the beam is broken power to the machine is automatically made safe.

Photon
A quantum of electromagnetic radiation.

Physical Hazard
See Physical Agent.

Piezo Balance
Dust measurement instrument which gives a direct mass concentration readout. A crystal is set up in oscillation and the rate of oscillation is influenced by the amount of dust deposited on it.

Pitot Tube
An open ended tube which is connected to a manometer with the other end placed in the airflow enabling total pressure to be measured.

Pitot-static Tube
A combination of a pitot tube surrounded by a second tube which provides static pressure measurements.

Plaintiff
An injured or aggrieved person making a claim under civil law. See Claimant.

Plenum Ventilation
Mechanical form of dilution ventilation (from the Latin plenus meaning full).

Policy
See Safety Policy.

Polluter Pays Principle
The polluter bears the expenses of carrying out the pollution control measures decided upon by public authorities to ensure that the environment is in an acceptable state (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development).

Pollution
The release into any environmental medium from any process or substances which are capable of causing harm to humans or any other living organisms supported by the environment.

Population Potential
The number of people that could be affected by an accident.

Positron
See Beta Particle.

Power Culture
A style of organisational behaviour described by Charles Handy which is based upon power emanating from central ‘Zeus like` figures.

Power Interlocking
A safeguarding system for machinery in which the movement of the guard is interlocked with the direct switching of the power to the hazard.

PPE
Personal Protective Equipment.

PPM
See Parts Per Million.

PRA
Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

Practicable
A stricter duty than ‘reasonably practicable` in which the cost of precautions is not a factor. Something is practicable if it is possible to be accomplished with known means or resources and feasible within the scope of current knowledge and invention.

Predicted Noise Level
The noise reduction to be expected based upon attenuation data supplied by the manufacturers of noise reduction equipment or materials.

Prescriptive Legislation
Statutory codes which specify exactly the conditions for compliance and often the means by which they should be achieved.

Primary Explosion
See Explosion.

Principal Contractor
The contractor who undertakes or manages the construction work for the client.

Private Nuisance
An unlawful and continuing interference with a persons use or enjoyment of land.

Proactive Monitoring
See Active Monitoring.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment
An assessment which identifies potential routes to an undesired consequence and assigns probability data to the causal paths so as to produce a quantified estimate of the risk.

Probability
The likelihood of a specific event or outcome (usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1) measured by the ratio of actual events to the total number.

Prohibition Notice1
A statutory notice which may be issued by an inspector of the HSE or an EHO which requires the recipient to cease or not to begin an activity. The notice is served where an inspector forms the opinion that the activity presents a risk of serious personal injury. A breach of statute is not necessary and the notice remains in force during the period of any appeal.

Prohibition Notice2
Statutory notice which may be issued by the fire authority on premises which present a serious risk to persons in the event of fire. The notice may prohibit the use of or restrict the use of premises until appropriate remedial action is taken.

Prosecute
The act of initiating and pursuing a legal action before the criminal courts.

Prospective Fault Current
The maximum current which may flow in a system when there is a short circuit or an earth fault.

Protected Disclosure
A disclosure of information made in the public interest as a qualifying disclosure under The Public Interest Disclosure Act.

Proton
An elementary particle with unit atomic mass approximately and unit positive electric charge.

Psychrometer
An instrument for measuring atmospheric humidity utilizing a dry and wet-bulb thermometer and whirled manually or by motorized unit to provide the moderate air flow necessary to obtain an aspirated wet-bulb temperature reading.

Pulmonary Oedema
A waterlogging of the lungs.

Putlog Scaffold
A scaffold whose structural support is provided by putlogs. The working platform rests on the putlogs.

Putlogs
Metal scaffold tubes flattened at one end into a spade like shape and inserted into brickwork.

PUWER
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations.

Pyrophoric Compounds
Materials which are so reactive that contact with air or moisture causes oxidation or hydrolosis so rapidly that the heat evolved is sufficient to cause ignition.

QRA
Quantified Risk Assessment

Qualifying Disclosure
A disclosure made to a specified person or body which a worker reasonably believes tends to show: that a criminal offence has been committed; a failure to comply with a legal obligation has occurred; a danger to health and safety exists; damage to the environment; or a miscarriage of justice has taken place etc.

Qualitative Measures
Performance measures that are descriptions of situations or conditions which cannot be recorded numerically.