Copy of `Olympus - Glossary of photography`

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Olympus - Glossary of photography
Category: Sport and Leisure > Photography
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 538


Megabyte
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1 MB = 1,024 kilobytes.

Megapixel
(Digital cameras and photo printers) For Megapixel the transducer of a digitalcamera has around 1 Mio. Pixels.

Megapixel digital camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital camera equipped with a CCD that can record images with over 1,000,000 pixels. Today, cameras with up to 5 megapixels are in the price range of amateur users.

Memory effect
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A problem with NiCd rechargeable batteries where, if the battery is repeatedly charged when not fully empty, the battery just remembers its capacity when it was “topped up� and not its actual capacity. The result: the battery loses power over time.

Memory Stick
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A removable memory medium developed by Sony.

MF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Manual Focus.

MF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Manual Focus.

Micro processor
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The programmable chip controlling the computer. It is composed of either one or more integrated circuits.

Microdrive
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A miniature hard drive from IBM that fits the Compact Flash Type II format. To record images to a Microdrive, a digital camera not only needs to be compatible with Compact Flash Type II, but also electronically compatible (able to provide the power required and have the necessary firmware.)

Microprocessor
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Electronical part of the camera which processes the signals from the A/D/ converter

Mid-roll rewind button
(Film cameras) Used for rewinding a roll of film before it's finished.

Middle contact
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Electronical contact on every hotshoe for transferring the fire orders from the flash. Because this contact is the main contact and it is always situated in the middle of the hotshoe, it is also called middle contact.The middle contact diameter is also bigger than the extra contact on systemhotshoes.

Mignon
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Named for batteries with a standard measure fom 14,5 x 50,5 mm. Most frequently used battery format. Also known as AA (American name) or R6 Batterie ( international official name).

MiniCards
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Small memory cards that are manufactured by Intel (Miniature Cards) or Toshiba (SSFDC).

MMC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Multimedia Card

Modem
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Word derived from Modulation and Demodulation. A device which transforms digital data into analogue signals in order to send the information through a telephone line. A modem is necessary to access the internet or online services.

Moiré
(Digital cameras and photo printers) An interference pattern brought about when images of differing resolution are superimposed. This problem may occur, for example, if small diamond shapes are to be reproduced on a television screen.

Monochrome
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A picture in only one colour or in black and white.

Motion JPEG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Some digital cameras can record a fast sequence of images in QuickTime Motion JPEG format.

Movie recording
(Digital cameras and photo printers) An increasing number of digital cameras now allow the photographer to capture movie sequences. By taking hundreds of shots over the space of about a minute, a movie effect can be achieved (some cameras allow sound to be recorded to the movies too). These can then be included in presentations or incorporated into internet sites. (Sound recording.)

MPEG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Motion Picture Expert Group. The abbreviation is used to describe a compression format for digitised video images. (JPEG)

MPU
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mathematical Processing Unit. Either an integrated or separate component of a processor, which carries out the mathematical calculations, e.g. for certain image processing tasks.

MS-DOS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Microsoft Disc Operating System. (DOS)

Multi measuring cell
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Electronical component for multiple spot measuring.

Multi-spot autofocus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) An autofocus system that uses readings from several different points in the frame to determine the proper focus.

Multi-spot exposure metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) With this system, the user can take readings from a number of freely-definable points. The camera recalculates the average exposure after each reading.

Multimedia card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A flash memory card used in some digital cameras and MP3 players.

Navigator
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Netscape Internet browser.

Negative
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Film coated with a light sensitive emulsion that after exposure and processing produces the images taken with the camera in complementary values. (Slide)

Net
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Shortened form of network or Internet.

Netscape
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Navigator

Network
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The connection of several individual computers to aid data exchange and communication.

Ni-MH battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Nickel-Metal Hydride battery. Rechargeable batteries that have an energy density 100% higher than NiCd batteries and can supply high energy levels when required, e.g. when using the flash in quick succession. They can be recharged more than 300 times and are environmentally-friendly (free of cadmium and mercury). Among other devices, Ni-MH batteries are used to power digital cameras.

NiCd battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Nickel-Cadmium battery.

Nodal point
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The optimal turning point of the camera is the so called Nodal Point, this is the point of intersection between the optical axes and the main surface of the object. When a beam of light hits in a certain angle on the picture side nodal point, the beam of light will leave the objectside nodal point under the same angle. A good description for this point could also be 'optical centre'. The nodal point is impotant with taking panorama pictures.

Noise
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A term used in the field of audio engineering to describe interference that can lead to impure sounds and distortion. Noise may occur, for example, as a result of faulty microphones or recording equipment. In digital imaging, noise is a term used to describe the visible effect of interference on the CCD sensor. It appears as unwanted colour spots in an image - especially those taken at night with a slow shutter speed. (Colour noise)

Noise reduction
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In noise reduction mode, the camera takes two shots: the normal shot and one with the same exposure time but with the shutter closed. It is then able to determine the areas of an individual image that are susceptible to noise and compensate for this.

NTSC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) National Television Standards Committee. American television standard for the coding/ encoding of colours. Developed in 1953 this US TV norm is defined by an image size of 640 x 480 pixels and a frequency of 60 Hz (interlaced, i.e. 2 x 30 half images per second). (PAL, SECAM)

Object-lens tube
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Tube sized housing from an objective.

Offline
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the state when no data connection exists. (Online)

OLE
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Object Linking and Embedding: Enables “objects� (graphics, tables, etc.) to be embedded into different files/documents in order to create, for example, a report.

OLYMPUS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) One of the worldwide leaders in the optio-digital market. Olympus entered the field of digital imaging at photokina 1996. From the very beginning, the company offered a complete digital photography system. With its vision, Olympus quickly became, and has remained, a driving force in this booming sector.

Online
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the state when two or more devices are directly connected and are communicating efficiently. (Offline)

Operating system
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The basic program needed by a computer for operation. Well-known operating systems include Windows from Microsoft and Mac OS from Apple.

Optical real image viewfinder
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Shows the actual area that can be photographed.

Optical zoom
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Zoom lens.

Optional
(Digital cameras and photo printers) From Latin 'optio' (= wish, free option) With cameras: accessory wich can be purchased as an extra and is not a part of the standard box.

Overexposure
(Digital cameras and photo printers) When a shot receives too much light so that the photo is too bright and colours are bleached out.

PageMaker
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Popular DTP program.

PAL
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Phase Alternating Line. A colour television standard developed in Germany in 1967 and used in many European and non-European countries. The image size is 786 x 576 pixels with a frequency of 50 Hz interlaced (2 x 25 half images are generated each second). (NTSC, SECAM)

Pan-Focus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Special programm mode in which the autofocus can be turned off and the camera will adjust the focal point and the diaphragm so that everything in a certain distance area will be in focus. Because there will be no autofocus proces, the shutter can be opened without a focus conditioned time delay. In photography jargon allso called Hyperfocal Setting. Fixed focus cameras function as well according to the Hyperfocal Setting principle.

Panorama function
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Special function that allows the stitching together of numerous pictures to create a panorama effect. SmartMedia and xD-Picture Cards from Olympus make it particularly easy to create such compositions when used in conjunction with a compatible Olympus digital camera.

Panorama picture
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Generally speaking named for pictures which are at least twice as wide as high and which are suited for picture motivs with a really great angle of coverage (up to 360 ). Real panorama pictures show a greater angel of coverage than pictures with a traditional side proportion.With common panorama technology the camera turns around it own spindle during shooting or several pictures will be united to an extra long picture. For the last method several digital cameras own a so called Panorama respectively Stich-Assistent which indicates from two removed separate pictures the points of intersection for easy seamless uniting of the pictures with the special software. Simply Panorama systems cut of the upper or lower margin of a picture to hold out a panorama picture; but the angle of coverage will not be bigger as with a 'normal' picture.

Pantone
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A colour scale consisting of about 3,000 gradations in tone that is used in editing digital images.

Parallax error
(Digital cameras and photo printers) When the motif seen through the camera`s viewfinder does not correspond with what will be captured by the lens due to the different viewing positions of the two. When shooting close up, the degree of error can lead to incorrectly framed images. Some cameras feature a viewfinder with correction markings to prevent this while others automatically compensate for the parallax effect. In digital cameras, the parallax error can be avoided by framing shots with the LCD monitor (if available).

Parallel
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Simultaneous but independent execution of individual tasks.

Parallel interface
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Allows external devices to be connected to the computer such as printer, external storage media and digital cameras. The data is transmitted parallel, that is, byte by byte (8 bits at once).

Patch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A piece of programming code that can be “patched� into an already existing program to correct a bug. (Bug-Fix)

PC Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Also referred to as a PCMCIA Card. It is a card that stores information and is often used with notebooks. A PC Card may function as a modem, or act as a connection between a mobile phone and a notebook. (Card adapter)

PC-Synchro cable
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Standard plug for connecting a Studio Flash and an older compact flash to cameras.The cable is only used for transmitting the flash commands: opposite to TTL flash control were there are no signals transmitted for controlling the exposure. The short for PC has by the way nothing to do with in computer technology used short for 'Personal Computer', however originally derived from Prontor and Compur ( two type defenitions of shutters from Middle Format and Larg Format cameras), because in the past these frequently used type of shutters were directly connected to the flash. See also: Flash synchronisation.

PC-Synchro plug
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Plug for connecting a pc synchron cable.

PCMCIA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. Committee for the standardisation of storage cards.

PCMCIA Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) PC Card.

PDF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for ' Portable Document Format' . By the Adobe company developed special file format for documents (f.i. manuals, prospects, message). The PDF format allows a uniform description from the corresponding documents in original layout and with the original lettertype on the monitor and on paper. PDF documents can be opened, placed, or printed with the Acobat Reader from Adobe which can be obtained free of charge.

Peripheral device
(Digital cameras and photo printers) General term for computer accessories.

Photo CDA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) process developed by Kodak and Philips that enables the digital storage of conventional photographs and slides on a CD-ROM. As such, the digitised picture may be loaded into a computer and viewed or edited like other digital images.

Photo lexicon
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A composition of conceptions from the photography area including the definitions. Remark of the redaction: 'Fotolexicon' is a - apparently for testing - very often searched for deception on digitalkamera.de-Lexikon.

Photocell
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Photodiode.

Photodiode
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A semiconductor which measures or converts light into an electrical current. Photodiodes are commonly used in scanners, CCD sensors, and exposure meters.

Photoshop
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Popular image processing program.

PICT file
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A file format developed by Apple.

PictBridge
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Protocol (manufacturer overstepping) for direct heading of a printer with a digital camera. Makes printing possible from a digital camera without a pc and the printer does not has to have memory cards slots. For this it' s neccessary that the printer as well as the camera are PictBridge standard compatibel.

Picture effects
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Allow images to be captured, for example, in black & white, blackboard/whiteboard and sepia to produce a specific look. (sepia)

Picture resolution
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Resolution.

Pixel
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The pixel is the smallest element of a raster display or digital image and contains information about intensity and colour. A pixel can be either square or rectangular. Generally, monitors or ink-jet prints consist of pixels with up to 256 dots per colour. Exception: dye-sublimation printer.

Pixel mapping
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Term for process by which defective pixels on a CCD are recognised and compensated for. The missing data is calculated by using the values from surrounding pixels.

Pixel modulation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A process used in printing which changes the brightness of individual pixels by changing the pixel size.

Pixel-Shift
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Shooting technology with digital cameras, where in a fraction of a second two successive shots with slightly (in micrometer-area) moved shootinglevel (by moving the transducer or through moving the by the objective embraced image) are made. Therefore it is possible for the transducer to filter the two images differently, which has as a result less interpolation ostentation and therefor a better image quality.

PKZIP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) ZIP

Plug and Play
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Developed by Intel, this standard allows the installation of extension cards into a computer without the subsequent need to alter the configuration. This is directly supported by Windows 95 and all newer Windows versions. (USB)

Plug-In
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Additional program for a browser to extend its functionality. With a plug-in, file formats that are not in HTML, such as music and video files, can be accessed. Well-known plug-ins are: “QuickTime�, “Flash� (for video), “Shockware� (for multimedia), RealAudio/RealVideo� (for music/video through the Internet), and “Acrobat Reader� (for PDF files).

PMA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Photo Marketing Association, Internation organisation of Photo dealers. They organise every year in February a mainly for the American market intended, Photo Fair in the USA.

PNG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Portable Network Graphics. A lossless compression file format used for storing images. (JPEG, MPEG, LZW, ZIP)

Polarisation filter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Filter that only lets light through that is coming from a certain direction and so helps cut out reflections from non-metallic surfaces (like glass and water). Use of the filter also increases colour saturation, making blue skies even bluer, for example.

Postscript
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A standard format for the printing or reproduction of text and graphical documents.

Ppi
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Printing term for pixel per inch. Indicates the number of pixels a scanner or digital camera can process per inch.

Primary colours
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The basic colours of the additive or subtractive colour system. (Additive colour system; subtractive colour system)

Print format
(Film cameras) The proportions (height to width) or shape of a photographic print. APS cameras offer a choice of three print formats.

Print functions
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In addition to trimming and image selection, some printers offer users greater independence from the computer by presenting them with more print functions. For example, individual backgrounds may be created and picture effects like sepia used to personalise the print. And if the printer and camera feature DPOF compatibility, print settings selected on the camera immediately after taking photos will also be recognised. (Picture effects.)

Printer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Some types of printers include: dot-matrix, ink-jet, laser, LED or dye-sublimation.

Printing media (paper)
(Digital cameras and photo printers) For optimum printing results, it is important to choose the best printing media. Olympus not only offers paper and printer ribbons for its dye-sublimation printers, but also provides print media for the ink-jet user too. In addition to the specially coated, super high quality InkJet Photomedia, the CAMEDIA series also features other paper types with a variety of finishes, from high-gloss to poly-silk fabric.

Processor
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The “heart� of a computer. All programs and user commands are executed here. CPU.

Program automatic
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In the program automatic setting, (on most models denoted by “P�) the camera sets the aperture and shutter speed to suit the relevant conditions.

Progressive CCD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes a CCD specially developed for digital cameras. (Video CCD)

Prosumer camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Term to describe a camera with features of professional models that also appeal to the consumer.

Protocol
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Basis of communication (rules, format, procedures) for passing data between individual devices. It is the “language� devices use to communicate with each other. Well-known protocols are TCP/IP and FTP for Internet communication and PTP for exchanging images.

PSD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Photoshop file.

PTP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Picture Transfer Protocol is an image data transfer protocol (like the TCP/IP protocol for the Internet) that is intended to do away with the need for special digital camera drivers. PTP compatible devices, such as digital cameras, computers, mobile phones, printers, etc., should be able to transfer data among each other without the user needing to install any drivers.

Quark Xpress
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Popular DTP-program.

Quartz-date
(Film cameras) The ability to imprint the date on photographic negatives; the dates appear permanently on the photo side of the prints.