Copy of `Olympus - Glossary of photography`

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Olympus - Glossary of photography
Category: Sport and Leisure > Photography
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 538


GIMP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for:'GNU Image Manipulation Programme'. Under GNU General Public Licence sold free Picture Editing Progamme

Glass lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens.

Glossy
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Photo paper (conventionel or Inkjet paper) with a glossy surface.

Google
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Well-known Internet search engine.

GPRS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) General Packet Radio Service. A mobile communications standard. Seen as a step between GSM and 3G (UMTS), it offers fast data transmission rates via a GSM network within a range between 9.6Kbps and 115Kbps.

GPS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Global Positioning System. The GPS receiver uses satellites to let you determine the exact longitude, latitude, and height above sea level anywhere on earth.

Graphics card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Component of a computer that is necessary to display an image on the monitor screen.

Green stitch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Affected with a green stich.

Grey scale
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A scale of shades ranging from white to black. Devices that can only display data in black and white translate colour differences into various shades of grey.

GSM
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Global System for Mobile Telecommunications. Standard for the transfer of data by mobile phone.

Guide Number
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Value for the maximum power of a camera flash based on a film with an ISO of 100. Built-in camera flashes have a guide number (GN) of approx. 10 – 20, compact flashes between 20 – 40, and the GN for grip-type flashes is between 45 – 60.

Hand-held exposure meter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) External exposure meter. (exposure meter, reflected-light metering)

Hard drive -disk
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Device for the permanent storage of programs and information that remain after a computer has been turned off.

Hardware
(Digital cameras and photo printers) All actual physical computer components such as the computer itself and peripheral devices like monitor, mouse, printer, digital camera, etc.

HDD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Hard Disc Drive. (Hard drive)

Hi Colour
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes an image having at least 32,000 colours. (True Colour)

Histogram
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A graph that shows the brightness distribution (by depicting the distribution of dark and bright pixels) for a scene. The data can be used to judge the exposure of the picture. Histograms are sometimes found in high-end digital cameras.

Homepage
(Digital cameras and photo printers) First page of an Internet site.

Hot pixels
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Faulty pixels which are always on, causing a white spot in the image, usually slightly larger than one pixel in size.

Hot plugging
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The connection and uncoupling of external devices while the PC is running. Restarting the computer is unnecessary. Requirements: USB, and the relevant operating system. (Plug and Play)

Hot shoe
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A clip-on connector for an external flash system (or accessories like remote controls or flash adapters) usually found on the top of the camera. It has two metal brackets and normally one or several electrical contacts in the centre to allow communication between the camera and flash. If it has no contact, this is an accessory shoe. The flash also features a hot shoe contact and normally a locking mechanism to prevent it falling out of the shoe.

Hotline
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The technical customer support centre.

HQ resolution
(Digital cameras and photo printers) High Quality resolution. Description for high digital photo quality.

HSCSD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) High Speed Circuit Switched Data. A mobile communications standard that offers data transmission rates up to 43.2Kbps.

Html
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Hypertext markup language, a file format used in the World Wide Web.

http
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Hypertext transfer protocol: transmission format and communication basis for the exchange of data in the Internet.

Hyper focal setting
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The hyper focal is a certain distance, with whom you get the depth of field; the hindmost focal point is allways at infinity. Wenn the camera uses a fixed aperature and a fixed focal length and also to this two parameters fitting hyperfocal distance has been adjusted, everything halfway from hyperfocal distance to infinity will be in focus.

IC-Card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) PC-Card.

IEEE1394
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Firewire

Illustrator
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Popular graphics program from Adobe.

Image capacity
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The number of images that can be taken before the storage medium needs to be replaced.

Image compression
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In order to store digital pictures economically, the image data is compressed. However, compression often causes a reduction in picture quality.

Image converter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Semiconductor image converter (CCD chip).

Image editing software
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes software that allows the user to view and alter digital images. A commonly used image editing program is Adobe Photoshop.

Image plane
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The area inside the camera where the object is focused clearly. The image plane can be compared to the film plane in analogue cameras; the difference being that the film is replaced by the CCD chip.

Image stabiliser
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Either opto-mechanical or electronic system that helps prevent camera shake to ensure sharp, clear results even at very high zooming levels. Upon detecting any unintentional movement of the lens, the system compensates optically or electronically to keep the subject steady. While electronic stabilisation systems are fine for video cameras, there are not as suitable for still images.

Image Tank
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mobile buffer from the Level Electronics company.

Image transmission- transfer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The digitisation of images means they can be transmitted via data carriers or networks without the loss of quality or copied an infinite number of times. (Data transmission)

Imaging software
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Software for the administration and editing of digital images (as well as other multimedia files).(CAMEDIA Master)

Index print
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Reduced display of several photos on one print.

Index print
(Film cameras) Created by digital scanning, a print-sized sheet of small images of every shot on a roll. Used for storage, indexing and reference. APS film comes back from the developer as an index print.

Infinity lock
(Film cameras) Also known as landscape mode, this setting causes the camera to focus as far away as possible, especially useful for accurate focusing when shooting through windows.

Ink jet printer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A printer that by spraying tiny black or coloured ink dots onto paper produces a hardcopy image.

Integrated Circuit
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Integrated Circuit = IC. (Chip)

Interface
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Connecting point between the computer and an external device, e.g. mouse, scanner, modem, digital camera. (Serial interface, parallel interface)

Internal memory
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Memory built into a camera that cannot be removed.

Internet
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Worldwide network of computers that allows for the global exchange of information.

Interpolation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Calculating non-existent image data from captured image data. Interpolation is used by all digital cameras to determine colour data from neighbouring sensors. (The reason, a sensor can only record one colour.) Interpolation can also be used to increase (or decrease) an image`s resolution. The quality of the resulting photo depends on the capabilities of the algorithm used. It is important to remember, interpolation cannot produce detail that has not been captured.

IPTC-NAA-Standard
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Standard for storing picture information (so called meta files) in JPEG files. The information is not visible in the picture, but they are wrapped up in the picture file and can be shown and worked up with an appropriate programm.This standard is developed by the 'International Press Telecommunications Council' (IPTC) and the 'Newspaper Association of America' (NAA).

IS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Image Stabilizer

iSAPS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for 'intelligent Scene Analysis based on Photographic Space'. By the Canon Company developed technology. On the basis of the distance of the motif, the focal length, the aiming of the camera (thanks to the orientation sensor) and the lightness of the motif makes it possible for the DIGI respectively iSAPS to make a profil from the motif and compare it with characteristic properties typical motif situations, which are stored inside the camera databank. Due to these informations, is it possible for the camera to adjust the picture parameters (f.i. Exposure, white balance etc.)to the circumstances.

ISDN
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Integrated Services Digital Network. Digital network for the fast transmission of voice, data, pictures, etc. between uniformly standardised user interfaces.

ISO Norm
(Digital cameras and photo printers) International Standard Organization. (Film sensitivity)

Jaggies
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Slang term for the stair-stepped appearance of a curved or angled line in digital imaging. The smaller the pixels, and the greater their number, the less apparent the “jaggies�. Also known as pixelisation.

JAVA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A programming language developed by SUN. Among its features is the possibility to program interactive software for the Internet.

JEIDA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Japan Electronics Industry Development Association. Japanese standards committee for storage cards.

JPEG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Joint Photographic Experts Group. The de facto standard for image compression in digital imaging devices which enables different levels of compression to be selected. Because brightness information is more important than colour data, most pixels only store the brightness information. When the JPEG file is opened, the missing colour data is automatically calculated from the existing information. (MPEG)

JPEG2000
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Successor format from the JPEG store method. Thanks to the so called Wavelet-compression there is less quality los as with a higher compression density as with JPEG. Nowadays hardly supported.

JPG
(Digital cameras and photo printers) File ending for JPEG files.

KB
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Kilobyte.

Kbit-s
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Kilobits per second. The number of kilobits transmitted per second. (Baud)

Kbyte
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Kilobyte.

Kelvin scale
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Temperature scale beginning at absolute zero (approx. –273° Celsius = 0 Kelvin). Therefore Celsius values can easily be converted into Kelvin by adding 273 degrees to the Celsius value. (Colour temperature)

Kilobit
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1 Kilobit = 1,000 bits.

Kilobyte
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1 Kilobyte = 1,024 bytes.

LAB
(Digital cameras and photo printers) LAB colours consist of a luminance or brightness component and two chromatic components.

Large format
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Name for the analogue Planfilm-System. The greatest filmsize in film-based photography . Typical picture sizes are 4 x 5 and 9 x 12 cm. For this size are special - mostly technical very simple (without electronics), allmost allways manual adjusting - cameras (named Precision- or Field camera) available. Because this cameras have between the lens and the film bearer movable bellows, it makes it possible to obtain through moving on both levels perspective corrections (f.i. anti-distorsion) and a so called focus extension.

Laser printer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A printer that uses a laser beam to project characters and graphics onto a drum, which then electrographically transfers the image, using toner, onto paper. Laser printers are known for their high quality reproduction and printing speed.

LCD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Liquid Crystal Display. LCDs are commonly used in calculators, watches, digital cameras, and notebook computers.

LCD (liquid crystal display) panel
(Film cameras) This indicates camera status and settings. Available on almost all point-and-shoot models.

LED
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A Light Emitting Diode is often used as an indicator lamp.

LED printer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) As opposed to laser printers, the printed image is not brought on to a drum by a laser beam, but by a row of densely located light diodes.

Lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Transparent glass or plastic that has been formed and polished to form a certain shape, usually spherical. When a beam of light reaches the area between the air and the lens, a part of this light is always reflected. The remaining light passes into the lens and alters its propagation direction, i.e. the light is refracted. The incorporation of various lenses (converging and diverging lenses) creates a lens system. When optimally arranged, they allow the subject to be presented correctly on the image plane.

Lens adapter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Adapter between the end of the camera`s lens and the lens converter. A step-up-ring is also a type of lens adapter.

Lens hood
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Made from metal or plastic, the hood fits on the end of the lens to shade the front lens element from incidental light, which could otherwise cause reflections, glare and ghosting.

Lens system
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Group of lenses (sometimes just one lens) that enable the sharpest and brightest pictures to be taken. Often simply referred to as the lens or objective. There are various lenses available such as wide-angle, normal, macro, and tele with fixed focal distances as well as zoom lenses with adjustable focal distances.

Li-Ion rechargeable battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Very lightweight rechargeable battery with a very high capacity (up to twice that of a NI-MH rechargeable battery) and one that does not suffer from memory effect problems. While regular lithium ion batteries are available as mignon batteries, the rechargeable versions are only used in custom-made forms requiring special chargers.

Li-Po rechargeable battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The lithium polymer battery represents a new type of technology that unlike Ni-MH, NiCd and Li-Ion cells does not need a metal casing. Instead, the electrodes are covered with flexible plastic or aluminium foil. They also have a very high energy density so that they can be smaller but provide higher performance than other rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, they are easier and cheaper to produce in the medium term than Li-Ion rechargeable batteries but, like the latter they are only available in custom-made forms requiring special chargers.

Light intensity
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1. Relationship of the maximum diameter of an objective to its focal distance. It is equal to the smallest aperture value (i.e. the largest opening). Whereas the zoom lenses on analogue cameras have a light intensity of F4, good digital cameras have lenses with a value less than F3.0. 2. The light intensity from sources of light measured in Candela. (Flash)

Light meter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) To ensure correct exposure, most analogue and digital cameras feature automatic light metering. Internal or external cells measure light intensity and convert the information into an electrical signal. This is then used by the camera to set the right shutter speed and aperture for the relevant light conditions. Modern exposure metering systems can measure the brightness of just a section of the scene, all areas or give more weight to certain areas. (Digital ESP/selective multi-zone metering), centre weighted average metering, spot metering, reflected-light metering, light metering)

Light metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Method of exposure metering by measuring the amount of light reaching an object. (reflected-light metering, Digital ESP/selective multi-spot metering, centre-weighted average metering, spot metering)

Light sensitivity
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Film sensitivity.

Line sensor
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Image sensor that is read line for line and of which the CCD is a typical example.

LINUX
(Digital cameras and photo printers) By Linus Thorvald developed free operating system which builts up on the commercial network Unix. Linux is a so called 'Open-Source-Programm' and which comes within the General Public License (GPL), which means, the source code has been made public, the source code can be modified and the software is available for free because there is no payment requiered for the licence. Nowadays it is possible that commercial companies requier money for commerce and documentation.

Lithium battery
(Digital cameras and photo printers) An accumulator type battery with a high energy density making it ideal for mobile phones, still and video cameras. Generally, the lithium battery is the main battery and the lithium ion battery is a secondary, rechargeable battery.

Lpi
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lines per inch. Unit of measurement for the resolution of printed images. (Dots per inch)

LSI
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Large Scale Integration. Name for electronical components which have different functions at one time or on which are integrated different components with special functions.

Lycos
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Well-known Internet search engine.

LZW
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Developed by Lempel, Zif, and Welsh: a special kind of compression reducing required storage capacity for Bitmap formats without loss in quality.

Mac
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Abbreviated name of the Apple Macintosh computer. This computer is often used for graphics applications and image processing.

Mac OS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The Apple Macintosh computer`s operating system.

Macro converter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens attachment that permits fascinating detailed shots. (Tele converter, wide-angle converter)

Macro position
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Special setting on a camera respectively on an objective, which shortens the closest focus range.

Macro shooting
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Shooting while having the camera just a very short distance from the subject, such as 2 cm or 20 cm away.

mAh
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for mili-ampere per hour. Unit for the capacity statement of batteries. The higher the value, the more energy reserves the battery has to offer.

Mailbox
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Either an answering machine or a computer service that enables the user to leave voice announcements, text messages, digital images or any other type of file. Ordinarily, mailboxes are accessed via telephone lines through the use of a modem.

Mass Storage
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Devices respectively storagemedia which can store longterm great volumes of files. F.I. harddisks, CD-R respectively CD-RW drives

Mass Storage Class
(Digital cameras and photo printers) USB Mass Storage Class.

Mavica
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Magnetic Video Camera. Originally named for diskette cameras (because diskettes are magnetical data carrier) by Sony.

MB
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Megabyte