Copy of `Olympus - Glossary of photography`

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Olympus - Glossary of photography
Category: Sport and Leisure > Photography
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 538


Coolscan
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Name for scanners from the brand Nikon.

CPU
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Central Processing Unit. The main processor of a PC (personal computer).

CR-V3
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 3V lithium battery with a standard size of 52 x 14 x 28 mm. Olympus description: LB-01E.

CR123A
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 3V lithium battery with a standard size of 34 x 16.5 mm, also called DL123A in America.

CR2016
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Defined as Lithium one time use button batteries with the standard size 20 x 1,5 mm and Nenn voltage from 3V. Used with digital cameras as backup battery for saving Date and Time.

CR2032
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Defined as Lithium one time use button batteries with the standard size 20 x 3 mm and Nenn voltage from 3V. Used with digital cameras as backup battery for saving Date and Time.

Cross-button
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Special operating element. By altering the point of pressure, a single button is all that is needed to choose various menus or select and activate functions.

CRT
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Cathode Ray Tube. Electron guns inside the tube send beams onto the front surface of the tube, causing it to glow, creating a display. (LCD)

Data security
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A collective term used for any measure to protect and store files as well as programs for an extended period of time.

Data transmission
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The exchange of digital information between two or more computers. Data is usually transmitted via a direct cable connection, a computer network or telephone lines.

DCF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Design Rule for Camera File System – an industry standard for saving digital images. This not only determines the file type, but also sets the rule for naming the folder and file structure. It allows the conversion of uncompressed TIFF files into compressed JPEG files. This JPEG file is of the Exif type and can contain camera information such as the date and shooting parameters. (Exif, DPOF)

Dead pixels
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Dead pixels do not react at all (unlike hot pixels) and can be seen in the resulting image as black spots.

Decoder
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Opposite of encoder, decompresses f.i. a Video

Depth of field
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The spatial area in a shot that is in focus. The depth of field is influenced by the aperture size, the lens` focal length and the point of focus. Also called depth of focus.

Dia
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Diapositiv film. Also known as two-side film. The dia film is a photografic emulsion, transferred to a carrier and through projection (f.i. with a dia projector) or retro-projection can be seen.Dia-films need a special turning development (so the chemicals used are not the same as for negative-films) where there can not be a color traffic......

DIGIC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Digital Imaging Integrated Circuit. By Canon especially developed processor for the camera internal Photo development for the own company models. The Digic-Signalprocessor takes over sic key functions, Image structure automatic exposure/focus/white balance, Signal editing, JPEG Compression, removable memory card management and managing the LCD.

Digital
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Opposite of analogue. Digital information is made up of a limited number of gradations (e.g. 256 colours, 8 bit). The change from one digital element to the next is always “step by step� and not continuous.

Digital Album
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mobile buffer from the brand Nixvue.

Digital camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Usually captures images with the help of a CCD chip. The image data received is then saved to special memory cards or other storage media. (SmartMedia, xD-Picture Card, Compact Flash, Memory Stick, SD Card, MMC Card)

Digital ESP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital Electro-Selective Pattern. The employment of a selective multi-zone metering system ensures an optimal exposure even in difficult lighting conditions. While simple multi-zone systems work out the average exposure from readings throughout the frame, the digital ESP system analyses the distribution and degree of brightness to see which of a range of scenarios the picture best matches (e.g. a shot with strong backlight or sunset). It then adjusts the settings accordingly. (Exposure metering, spot metering, reflected-light metering, exposure metering, light metering)

Digital flash
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Computer controlled flash. (Flash)

Digital Imaging Software
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Image editing software. (CAMEDIA Master)

Digital tele
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Thanks to special algorithms, some digital cameras are able to provide a zoom effect by re-calculating the captured image data. However, enlarging an image in this way also means reducing its picture quality.

Digital Wallet
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mobile buffer from the brand Minds@work.

Digitalisation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) AD-conversion.

Diode
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Photodiode.

Diopter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Unit for measuring a lens` refractive power. In photography, the term is used with close-up lenses and corrections to the viewfinder to adjust it to the user`s eyesight.

Diopter lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Optical accessory, which is screwed in front of the objective of the camera and functiones as a magnifying glass. Opposite of the macro converter only the image standard will be changed; the closest focus range will not be shorter. The factor of magnification will be indicated in dioptre(s).

Dioptric adjustment
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The adjustment of the viewfinder to the photographer`s eyesight (unit: dpt).

Direct print function
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The ability to print digital pictures without the need for a computer.

Diskette Adapter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) FlashPath Adapter.

Dispersion circle
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Dispersion circle originate when there is a blur in the picture and is the deviation from the projection of a pixel on the motiv in the sensor. From the side of the objective there is on the motiv for every pixel a lightcone which point hits the sensor during focussing.In the case focussing is not possible, the point wil be broken of and be projected all over the sensor. At a certain deviation the cone point to the sensor level, which will be projected as a circle, indicated as blurred, so this is the dispersion circle.

Display
(Digital cameras and photo printers) LCD

Distortion
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Misrepresentation of an image. Wide angle lenses normally produce more distortion than tele lenses.

DOS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Disc Operating System. Usually DOS describes the operating system developed by Microsoft for personal computers. (MS-DOS)

Dot
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The smallest raster element of an image. Many dots together produce one pixel. For example, in the specification “8 bit colour depth�, three “layers� of 256 dots each are on top of one another to produce one pixel.

Dot pitch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Used with monitors, it indicates the distance between individual dots. The smaller the distance between dots, the sharper the image. Good monitors usually have a dot pitch of between 0.25 and 0.27 mm.

Download
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the process of receiving data, usually via either a mailbox, the internet or another device like a digital camera to a PC (data transmission).

dpi
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Dots per inch (1 inch = approx. 2.54 cm). A measuring unit in printing to describe the geometric resolution of an image.

DPOF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital Print Order Format. A format introduced by the photo industry that enables images stored, for example on SmartMedia or xD-Picture Card, to be accessed directly by certain printers and copiers as well as allowing simpler professional treatment by photo labs.

DRAM
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Dynamic RAM. A type of memory chip that is used in most personal computers as the main storage medium. (RAM)

Driver
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A small program that allows communication between the application program and a certain device, for example a printer or digital camera.

DSC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital Still Camera, this shortcut is often used together with product number (f.i. Sony DSC-F707) or in file names (f.i. DSC030011.JPG).

DSLR
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Digital Single Lens Reflex.

DSP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Digital Signal Processor, electronical Microprcessor for real-time editing from digital signals. A DSP can take over one or more functions (f.i. Autofocus. JPEG compression, Connection ).

DTP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Desktop Publishing. This refers to the design and illustration of texts and graphics directly on the monitor screen.

Dual autofocus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) From Latin 'hybrida' = half-breed, bastard. Combined sytem for auto focus consisting of an active and a passive autofocus.

DVD-ROM
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital Versatile Disc. A standard for CD-ROM with a much greater capacity (e.g. 9.4 GB) than a regular CD-ROM.

DXP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Digital Extended Processor. Definition for certain A/D converters or signal editing parts from Sony.

Dye-sublimation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes a printing method for half-tone images or pictures. This process uses heat to transfer colour from a printer ribbon into paper. The picture quality is exceptional. The CAMEDIA photo printer P-400 ID from Olympus produces A4 size prints within 90 seconds and at a resolution of 314 dpi with up to 16.7 million colours.

EBV
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for electronical picture editing. See also: picture editing programm.

ED-Lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Extra-Low Dispersion which indicates a special condition for high quality lenses who can be built in high quality objectives. Lenses from ED-Glas have the special property, to break all colors from the visible lightspectrum equally strong, so there can be reached an extraordinary good representation result (sharpness, chromatical aberration)

Electronic viewfinder
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The electronic viewfinder consists of a small LCD which displays the picture seen though the lens, just like with a regular SLR. This is achieved with the help of the CCD which continually sends the captured image information to the electronic viewfinder. As a result, composition is much easier because the photographer is shown the very same image seen by the camera. Furthermore, shooting data, such as picture number and settings, may also be displayed here.

Encoder
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Opposite from decoder. Software, which f.i. compresses a video.

EOS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Electro Optical System. Name for Autofocus Singel-Reflex Camera developed by Canon.

EPS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Encapsulated PostScript. A computer file format based on the PostScript standard. It is supported by most graphic design and page layout programs. In addition to the PostScript code, the EPS file also contains a low resolution PICT.

ESP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Digital ESP.

EVF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Electronic viewfinder

Exif
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Exchangeable image format. A standard for image files created with digital cameras and other input devices. Exif files can contain either uncompressed TIFF or compressed JPEG images and can hold data about the camera and settings employed. Using special programs, the information saved can be shown. Exif 2.2 saves even more information, such as the shooting mode, white balance and flash settings used. Compatible printers can then intelligently apply this data to produce optimal printed results.

Explorer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Microsoft Internet browser.

Exposure
(Digital cameras and photo printers) During exposure, the sensors on the CCD (or chemicals on the film in analogue models) are subjected to the light outside the camera for a certain time.

Exposure control
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes how the shutter speed and aperture are controlled by the camera. This can be either automatic: fully automatic, programmed auto and scene program; as well as semi-automatic: Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority or manual: full control of the aperture and shutter.

Exposure correction
(Digital cameras and photo printers) (compensation/ control) Conscious deviation from the value ascertained by the light meter. The change can be made manually (under- and overexposure) or through the programmed auto exposure control.

Exposure meter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Light meter

Exposure metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Light metering

Exposure time
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The length of time for which the shutter is open.

FAQ
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Frequently Asked Questions.

FDD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Flexible or Floppy Disc Drive. A storage medium with a capacity of 1.44 megabytes (MB).

File
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A set of data that has been arranged according to specific rules. Files are managed in the computer by the operating system and can be stored long-term on an external storage medium.

File format
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the contents of files. Common file formats include for a text file, (Encapsulated PostScript) for PostScript, and for �TIFF�-images.

Film scanner
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Hardware for digitising negatives and slides. (Flash Film Scanner)

Film sensitivity
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The information is given in an ISO value, which replaced the earlier DIN and ASA (American Standard Association).

Filter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1. A transparent, mostly coloured sheet of glass or plastic that can be placed in front of a lens to create a certain effect. 2. An option in an image editing program that enables certain adjustments to the picture, e.g. colour and brightness or foreshortening.

Filter screw-thread
(Digital cameras and photo printers) On the frontside of an objective (or on a special adapter) there is a special filter screw-thread for connecting filters.

Firewire
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Serial data transfer interface with a transfer speed of up to 400 Mbit per seconds (50 MB per second). Sometimes known as an IEEE1394 interface. Features some of the characteristics of USB, such as Plug & Play and the connection of up to 64 devices.

Firmware
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Software contained in ROM that manages the camera`s operation.

Fisheye lens
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Having a viewing angle of 180°, these lenses can provided a very surreal image. Can be divided into diagonal types which provide a frame-filling picture; or circular lenses which project a round image on the frame.

Fixed focal length
(Digital cameras and photo printers) When the camera`s lens has a set focal length and cannot be moved so optical zooming is not possible.

Fixed focus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Fixed focus cameras do not have autofocus systems. The focus and aperture have been set so that everything within a certain distance is captured clearly. However, the drawback is that they do not have a very close focusing range and only a small aperture.

Flash
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Produces a large amount of light for a brief moment to illuminate the subject. Modern flashes work with glass discharge tubes. Computerised camera flashes can measure and automatically control their intensity by means of a sensor directed at the subject. (Guide number)

Flash duration
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The camera`s flash synchronisation ensures the flash is emitted while the shutter is open.

Flash Film Scanner
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Attachment for certain digital cameras that digitises 35 mm negatives, and slides. (Film scanner)

Flash range
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The distance needed to be covered by the flash to give the subject optimal illumination. This can be calculated using Lambert`s law. As the distance from the light source is doubled only a quarter of the original amount of light will reach the subject. (Guide number)

Flash synchronisation
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Co-ordinates the opening of the camera`s shutter with the time and duration of the flash. Some cameras allow you to synchronise the beginning or end of the shutter (“first curtain� and “second curtain� flash respectively).

Flash-ROM
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A type of memory storage that can retain information even after the power has been switched off. Unlike conventional ROM, the contents of a Flash-ROM can be deleted and rewritten with the help of a pre-programmed electrical current. Therefore, a Flash-ROM is a combination of RAM and ROM.

FlashPath Adapter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Permits the trouble-free transfer of digital images saved on SmartMedia cards to a PC. The storage cards are inserted into the adapter and then in the computer`s disk drive.

Flexizone-Autofokus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) By the Canon company originaly developed autofocus system for camcorders, where -opposite to multiple-area-autofocus-systems- not on fixed point but at discretion will focus automatically. The choice from the measure points will made either automatically or (the camera tries to find out on which point which the main motiv is) and/or manualy (with cursor buttons or a joystick).

Focal length
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The distance between the centre of the lens system and the film or CCD sensor, i.e. where the image is in focus. Normal focal length gives an image impression roughly corresponding to that of the human eye (about 50 mm in conventional film cameras and about 7 mm in digital cameras with a 1/3� CCD).

Focal length adjusting
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Focus see Focusing

Focal length multiplier
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Uses anybody on a digital camera an objective, which originally.

Focusing
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Adjusting the position of the lens elements to bring the image into focus, i.e. so that it is clear and sharp.

Format
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In computers this refers to the type of file, such as JPEG, TIFF or DOC. In photography and other areas it also refers to the two dimensional size of an image. In compact cameras, the photos typically have a ratio of 3:2 (Format: 36 x 24 mm). With digital images, the ratio is normally 4:3 but can be changed to 3:2 in some cameras. For prints, the format means the size of the print out, such as 9 x 13 cm, 10 x 15 cm, 13 x 18 cm.

FreeHand
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Popular graphics program from Macromedia.

Freeware
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Software that is free to use and pass on but not sell. Unlike shareware, there is no need to register the software.

FTP
(Digital cameras and photo printers) File Transfer Protocol. Protocol for transferring files between computers and the Internet.

Full automatic
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In this mode, the camera not only controls the aperture and shutter but all other settings (e.g. flash).

Gamma correction
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A process whereby contrast values are optimised.

GB
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Gigabyte

GIF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Graphic Interchange Format. A popular file format for computer graphics.

Gigabyte
(Digital cameras and photo printers) 1 Gigabyte = 1,024 Megabytes.