Copy of `Olympus - Glossary of photography`

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Olympus - Glossary of photography
Category: Sport and Leisure > Photography
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 538


AC adapter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mains adapter. Enables the connection of the digital camera to the mains electricity supply.

AD conversion
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Analogue-Digital conversion. In order to process an analogue signal (e.g. a photo) in a computer, it must first be digitised (converted into a specific mathematical format of binary code). Pictures are usually digitised with the help of a digital camera or a scanner.

ADC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Analogue-Digital Converter. Hardware that converts analogue information into digital data. (AD-Conversion)

Add-on - Add-in
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Extension to a program such as Excel or Word that increases the available functions. These add-ons/add-ins are developed and distributed by the respective software company or other firms.

Additive colour mixing
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes a colour system that is based upon the addition of the three additive primary colours (red, green and blue). For example, colour televisions and computer monitor displays use the principle of additive colour mixing.

Advanced Photo System (APS)
(Film cameras) An exciting film and camera technology for point-and-shoot cameras. APS offers a choice of three print formats (such as panorama), improved photofinishing and many storage and reprinting conveniences.

AE
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Automatic exposure.

AEB
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Auto Exposure Bracketing

AF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Autofocus

AF metering field
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Spot or area in the frame marking the position where the autofocus system takes readings to set the focus.

AiAF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Artificial intelligence Auto Focus. By Canon developed Dual Autofocus System

Akkupack
(Digital cameras and photo printers) in a portable, external housing enclosed battery. It is used as an additional power source for extending the capacity/time of use from a device (f.i. Camera, Flash)

Algorithm
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A set of processing or working instructions that, because of their high precision, can be carried out independently by a mechanical or electronic device. Algorithms are, for example, the set rules for addition and subtraction etc. However, they are also the instructions that are established in a programming language. Algorithms simply allow the computer to solve particular problems. In image editing, algorithms are used to alter images, e.g. 3-D Cubic Algorithm. (TruePic)

Aliasing
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Pixel-shaped curves on the diagonal edges of objects. This can sometimes occur since all graphics consist of individual pixels. Anti-aliasing reduces this unwelcome effect by recalculating the contrast values of the neighbouring pixels and matching them up with each other.

Altavista
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Well-known search engine on the Internet.

Analogue
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Opposite of digital. Analogue data merges continuously into each other without clearly defined steps. (E.g. the colours of a rainbow are not obviously separable from one another.)

Angle of view
(Film cameras) The amount of scene taken in by a particular lens focal length. A short focal length has a wide angle of view, so you can photograph more of the scene than would be able with a long focal length, which has a narrow angle of view.

Aperture
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Mechanism behind the lens that controls the amount of light entering the camera. The aperture not only influences picture brightness but also regulates depth of focus. Most cameras are equipped with an iris aperture that can be freely adjusted or set according to pre-selected values.

Aperture Priority
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In this mode, the user can adjust the aperture and the camera automatically selects the best shutter speed to match it. In most cameras, the Aperture Priority mode is denoted by the letter “A�. Shutter Priority.

APO
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Definition for apochromatic corrected lenses (mostly made of fuorit-glas). Apochromatic corrected lenses have the property of breaking the beams of light so that the red, green and blue beams/waves exactly will meet on the same point and therefor there will not be any chromatic abberation.

AppleTalk
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A network protocol used by Macintosh computers.

APS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Advanced Photo System. Developed together by five companies, this film system is distinguished by simple operation, a new picture format (16 x 30 mm) as well as a choice of three picture formats. Additional information (such as exposure, aperture and date) can be recorded on the magnetic strip of the APS film. However, APS is not digital photography.

ASCII
(Digital cameras and photo printers) American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The commonly used binary code for a total of 128 symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation and special symbols, though, not for umlauts) enables the correct data transfer between software and hardware. The ASCII-code employs the first seven bits of a byte. The first 32 symbols are used as control symbols, e.g. to control a printer.

ASIC chip
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A chip designed for a specific application. They are used by cameras to quickly process the captured image data.

ATA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) AT Attachment. Interface for hard drives.

ATA-Flash-Cards
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Space-saving integrated plug-in memory cards.

Auto bracketing
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Using this mode, a series of shots – each adjusted to a different exposure value – is taken in succession. This is very useful in tricky lighting conditions where it is difficult to assess the settings. After all shots have been taken, the best may be selected and the others deleted. (Exposure correction)

Auto exposure
(Film cameras) The system with which your camera automatically sets the lens aperture and shutter speed to get the proper amount of light to the film.

Auto flash
(Film cameras) The flash mode in which the camera automatically decides whether or not flash is needed. The default mode of most point-and-shoot cameras, it turns the flash on in dim light and keeps it off in bright light.

Autofocus
(Film cameras) The camera's ability to automatically focus on the subject to be photographed.

Autofocus (AF)
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Automatic focus adjustment. There are basically two main AF methods: the focus detecting method, (or passive autofocus) usually employs a CCD and works by evaluating the amount of contrast or the phase difference in a scene. Distance metering (or active autofocus) utilises an (infrared) light emitter and receiver in a triangular surveying system. Alternatively, the camera may use ultrasound (sonar) and measure the time taken for the sound signal to return. This data is converted by a microprocessor into information about distance and thereby enables the automatic focusing of the lens.

Autofocus illuminator
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Some cameras are equipped with an AF illuminator which assists the normal autofocus in poor lighting conditions by illuminating the subject. In this way, the regular passive AF system (e.g. contrast detecting / phase differential method) can determine the correct focus settings – even in dark surroundings.

Automatic Program
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Within a programm automat the diaphragm and the shutterspeed according to the lightconditions are automatically set. On most cameras indicated with the symbol 'P'.

Average metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A special exposure metering technique that measures the average light intensity across the entire frame.

AVI
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Audio Video Interleave. Standard file format from Microsoft (and therefore for Windows computers). It is used for saving video sequences with or without sound.

Banding
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Depiction error often occurring in dark sections of an image when shooting with a high sensitivity setting. Smooth lines of brightness or colour look like bands of brightness or colour.

Batch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) In computer technology this notion is used together with batch editing files. These are small programms which carries out series of orders automatically.With that it is possible to rename at the same time a large file with pictures, copy, delete and so on without doing every step to every single picture.

Battery pack
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Also called power pack. Rechargeable battery protected by casing. It provides camera, external flash, etc, with additional power.

Baud
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Named after the French engineer Baudot. It is the unit used to measure data transfer (1 Baud = 1 bit/sec.). For example, the specification “28,800 Bauds� means that data can be transferred at a rate of 28,800 bits per second.

Binary
(Digital cameras and photo printers) This is the name given to the representation system of numbers consisting solely of the figures 0 and 1. Just like the ten figure decimal system (0-9), in the binary system, larger numbers are made up by combining the numbers 0 and 1.

BIOS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Stands for Basic Input / Output System and describes the basic program of a computer.

Bit
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Binary digit. The smallest digital unit that can show only two states, 0 or 1. 8 bits produce one byte.

Bit depth
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Colour depth.

Bitmap
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A representational form for a digital image in which each bit in the computers memory corresponds to one dot on the screen or printer.

Blackboard- Whiteboard
(Digital cameras and photo printers) These two picture effects record images using only pure black and white to heighten the image`s contrast value. This makes them ideal for capturing text.

Blooming
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The opposite of noise; an image error that has been more or less eradicated in the newer digital cameras. It describes the “overflow� of electrical charges between the individual sensors on a CCD element.

Bluebox
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A process from television and movie production. Actors stand in front of a coloured wall, usually painted blue. Later, a different background is put in for the blue areas on the recorded image, giving the impression that the actors are e.g. on top of a mountain, although they never left the studio.

Bluestitch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Affected with a blue color

Bluetooth
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Standard introduced by Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba for wireless, radio-wave communication between different devices. Unlike the infrared data transfer method, which is also wireless, Bluetooth does not even require visual contact between the communications devices. It operates on a frequency of 2.4 GHz and offers a regular transfer rate of 1 Mbit/s. Its normal range is 10 metres.

bps
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Bits per second. Refers to the number of bits transferred in one second. The bps notation is often found on modems and serial interfaces.

Bridge-Kamera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A bridge camera makes a bridge between a compact camera and a single reflex camera (SLR), it has a single reflex viewer but no exchangeble objectivs.

Browser
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes a program used to display information, especially on the internet.

Buffer (Buffer memory)
(Digital cameras and photo printers) A form of temporary memory (RAM) where images are saved briefly before being written to the storage media. This type of memory is necessary because memory cards are comparably slower due to their architecture and cannot save the files at the speed the camera produces them. Buffer memory is particularly helpful when shooting sequence photos.

Bug
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes a programming error. This can be removed by correction or rewriting the program codes.

Bulb mode
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Long exposure mode. In bulb mode, the shutter stays open as long as the release is held down. This allows exposure times of several minutes or even hours. However, in some models, the bulb mode is limited to a number of minutes regardless of how long the release is held.

Burst mode
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Another term for sequence mode or continuous shooting.

Bus
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Internal interface for data transfer between individual system components such as microprocessor, memory, etc.

Byte
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Binary data packet made up of 8 bits. A byte can represent values between 0 and 255. It can depict 256 symbols, numbers or colours. In the computer field, larger byte size is described using the prefix letter for the abbreviation of the exponent of 2. Therefore:
1 Kilobyte = 1 KB = 1,024 bytes
1 Megabyte = 1 MB = 1,048,576 bytes
1 Gigabyte = 1 GB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
1 Tera-byte = 1 TB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes.

Calendar card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) SmartMedia function card.

Calibration
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The reciprocal balancing or tuning of input and output devices to receive a matching value. In this way, the colours on a monitor can be matched with the printer`s colours. (Colour management)

CAMEDIA
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The name given to the Olympus Digital Imaging products.

CAMEDIA Master -CAMEDIA Master Pro
(Digital cameras and photo printers) CAMEDIA Master software allows easy, straightforward processing, editing, organising and printing of digital still and video images. Using the software, images can be joined together to create panoramic scenes. Thumbnail overviews make it easy to find individual photos. The Pro version offers additional advantages: the creation of presentations with sound effects and music, which can be saved as movies; HTML photo albums for inclusion on websites.

Candela
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Unit of illumination (cd). 1 cd is 1/683W per steradian.

Card adapter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Device in which the memory card can be inserted for transferring the data on a memory card between a PC Card slot and disk drive to the computer.

Card drive
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Device which has the possibility for the use of one or more different memory cards and appears as a computer drive. On the computer the pictures kan be moved between computer and drive and the pictures kan be removed from the memorycard.

Card reader- writer
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Device that accepts memory cards and, through connection to a computer, allows data to be transferred between the media and PC.

Cast
(Digital cameras and photo printers) When a colour of one type is in excess in a picture, such as too much yellow or red. Often appears if the wrong white balance setting is used.

CCD
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Charge-Coupled Device. A light sensitive semiconductor that converts received light into voltage according to the level of brightness. It is used as a chip or line sensor in digital cameras and scanners. (progressive CCD, video CCD)

CD-R
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Compact Disc Recordable. CD on which data can be saved (at intervals if desired) but not deleted. Besides the standard size of 12 cm diameter, smaller versions of 8 cm are also available.

CD-ROM
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Compact-Disc-Read-Only-Memory. A “read only� CD-ROM can hold up to approximately 650 or 700 MB of data, e.g. pictures and text.

CD-RW
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Compact Disc Rewritable. Compact disc that can be re-written around 1,000 times. Besides the standard size of 12 cm diameter, smaller versions of 8 cm are also available.

Centre-weighted average metering
(Digital cameras and photo printers) This method of exposure metering is often used for subjects with an even contrast distribution. (Digital ESP (selective multi-zone metering); reflected-light metering; exposure metering, light metering, spot metering)

CF
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Compact Flash.

Charger
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Battery-charger.

Chip
(Digital cameras and photo printers) General description for integrated circuits whose components (e.g. transistors, diodes, resistors) are mounted on a small plate of the semiconducting material silicon.

CIE
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage. An international standard commission for colour metric measurements. The set standards are the basis for the colour definition in DTP standards.

CISC
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Complex Instruction Set Computer. A type of processor that recognises and processes a large number of complex and powerful instructions without the need for additional software.

Clik!
(Digital cameras and photo printers) By de company Iomega developed Miniatur-Diskette with 40 MB storage capacity. It did not break through on the market.

Closest focus range
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Shortest distance on which can be focused.

CMOS
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Light sensitive chip. Different to CCDs, the pixel elements on the CMOS are read individually.

CMYK
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key/Black. These are the printer colours used to create colour prints. (Subtractive colour mixing)

Codec
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Short for Decompressor/Compressor. Algorithm for compression and decompression from images (pictures and videos) and/or music.

Color value size
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The color value size indicates the differences between the lightest and darkest parts which are shown on the picture

Colour area
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Spatial description off all colours respectively colour nuances, which a certain device (digital camera, monitor, printer) can assimilate respectively describe. The colorspace enlarges according to the colourdepth.

Colour depth
(Digital cameras and photo printers) This refers to the maximum number of colours that can be recorded by digital cameras and scanners or that can be displayed by graphics cards. A true colour representation can be achieved at a colour depth of 8 bits per primary colour, that is a 24 bit colour depth. In this case, 256 bits are available for one pixel. With an RGB signal, this value is then multiplied by a factor of three so that a total of 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 colours can be displayed. High-end scanners, graphic cards etc. provide a minimum colour depth of 24 bit.

Colour noise
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The incorrect reproduction of colour on an image, e.g. dots on an area which is supposed to be pure white. (Noise)

Colour stitch
(Digital cameras and photo printers) When a picture has a colour stich, a colour part is unnatural strong pronounced.

Colour temperature
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the spectral energy distribution and thereby the colour quality of a light source. The temperature of a colour is given in Kelvin (K). It is important to choose the correct temperature so that a subject can be photographed in its true colours. The spectrum that can be seen by the human eye lies between approx. 2,790 K and 11,000 K.

Colourmanagement
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The calibration of all peripheral devices that feature in the production of colour images (monitors, scanners, colour printers etc.). For example, by using a colour management system, the data from a scanner is converted into values for a standard colour range. The data is then arranged so that the printer can produce good colour prints.

COM port
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Describes the serial interface of a computer. Often used to connect devices such as digital cameras to a computer. ( USB)

Compact digital camera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Smaller dimensions and reduced weight make these easy to handle models ideal for travel and everyday use.

Compactcamera
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Small, easy to use camera with built-in, not changeable objectives and a viewfinder

CompactDisc
(Digital cameras and photo printers) BY Philips and Sony together developed data carrier where with the help of a bundled laser beam the digitalised data will be read. Originally as music carrier available nowadays also used as data carrier. In the near future it wil be replaced through the further developed DVD. See also CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW.

CompactFlash card
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Rewritable removable memory or function card developed by SanDisk in 1994. In contrast with SmartMedia or xD-Picture Card technology, it has a built-in controller. The newer CF type II (CF/2) cards are 5 mm thick, the CF type I are only 3.3 mm thick. (PCMCIA-Cards/PC Cards)

Compatibility
(Digital cameras and photo printers) The ability of data, programs (software), and equipment (hardware) to run and/or work together. This allows for the individual components to be put together to form a system.

Compression
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Data may be compressed to reduce storage (memory) space or transmission times (= reducing the amount of data). Well-known compression standards include JPEG and MPEG.

CompuServe
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Commercial data service that offers countless information and discussion panels about an unlimited variety of subjects. A computer, a modem, and a telephone line are required.

Computer controlled flash
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Almost all compact or grip-type flashes are computer controlled. They set their intensity by directing a sensor at the subject, thus gathering the information from which the flash duration can be attained. The light sensor often gathers the data through the cameras lens. (TTL)

Converter- Lens converter
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Lens extension that increases or shortens the focal distance. (Macro-converter, tele-converter, wide-angle converter)

Coolpix
(Digital cameras and photo printers) Name for consumer digital camera models from Nikon.