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Hobby shed - Modelmaking glossary
Category: Hobbies and Crafts > Modelmaking
Date & country: 12/11/2007, UK
Words: 278


Abaft
Towards a ship's stern.

Abeam
At right angles to a ship's length.

Abrade
To wear down or rub away by friction; erode.

Abrasive Wheel
A hard abrasive wheel used for grinding, sanding, etc.

ABS
A plastic polymer (acrylonitrate butadiene styrene) commonly used to make model kits.

Accelerator
A chemical agent used to speed up the drying time for super glue.

Acetate
A generic term referring to a sheet of transparent plastic.

Ackermann Steering
The basis of Ackermann's Steering is that the inner wheel turns about a smaller radius than the outer wheel.

Acrylic
A water-based paint that contains acrylic resin and comes in a variety of gloss levels.

Aerosol
A pressurised container that can deliver a solvent, propellant and paint mix for a professional finish, or provide power to enable airbrushing of paint.

Aft
At, in, toward, or close to the stern of a vessel or the rear of an aircraft or spacecraft.

After-Market
A product not included with a kit by the manufacturer but sold afterwards for use with the kit, generally by another supplier. Common after-market products include decals, photo-etched items and cast components.

AFV
Abbreviation: Armoured Fighting Vehicle.

Air Hose
A length of tubing used to connect an airbrush to a can of propellant or a compressor.

Airbrush
An atomizer using compressed air to spray a liquid, such as paint, onto a surface. See Choosing paint and painting tools.

Airfoil
The cross-section of a wing.

Align
To arrange in a line or centre so as to be parallel.

Allowance
An allowed difference in dimension of closely mating machine parts.

Alloy
A metal made from a combination of other metals or non-metals to produce certain desirable quantities.

Aluminium
Aluminium is the basis for a number of alloys.

Angles
The inclination of one line to another. One complete revolution equals 360°.

Anime
Japanese word for animation. Used in English to mean animation produced in Japan and/or the style of animation common in Japan.

Application
Means of applying paint to certain substrates. Brush and airbrush are the common modelmaking methods.

Apron
A cloth, leather or plastic garment that is tied about the waist and worn to protect clothing.

Architectural Moulding
A scale representation of structural or decorative items such as tubes, beams, girders, pillars, staircases, coving, dado rails, ceiling roses and skirting board. Commonly produced in plastic, wood or plaster.

Armature
The framework used to support a piece when sculpting.

Army List
Some wargame rules systems require players to keep a written record of their forces.

Atomisation
A process where paint is broken into finely divided droplets and then applied onto a surface. This applies to the process of airbrushing, where paint is forced through the airbrush nozzle under pressure.

ATV
Abbreviation: All Terrain Vehicle.

Authentic Colour
Paint matched to original BS, FS, railway, naval and army colours.

Axis
The line, real or imaginary, passing through the center of an object about which it could rotate; a point of reference.

Ballast
Weight used for balancing a model, particularly nautical vessels and aircraft.

Balsa
A soft wood, very light in weight, and used in the construction of motorised model airplanes and gliders.

Band Saw
A power saw. Its blade is a continuous, narrow, steel band with teeth on one edge. The blade passes over two large pulley wheels.

Base
Many miniature gaming rules systems require models to be mounted on a specific base or a flat surface.

Bench Lathe
A small lathe mounted on a bench or table.

Black Lining
To paint a dark colour in the recesses of a model to create a dramatic or comic book appearance.

Blend
To combine or mix so that the constituent parts are indistinguishable from one another.

Blind Hole
A hole made in a workpiece that does not pass through it.

Blister Pack
Card packaging with a vac formed clear plastic bubble. Commonly used as packaging for miniatures, tools and accessories.

Blooming
When the colour of a dried paint film looks hazy. Blooming is caused by moisture trapped in paint film and is often caused by ambient conditions. Blooming is commonly seen with decorative paints, where the surface the paint has been applied to is not fully dry, or where exterior paint has been applied in damp conditions.

Blowhole
A casting defect caused by trapped steam or gas.

Blueprint
Construction plans, containing great detail about the subject.

BNIB
Abbreviation: Brand New In Box.

Bow
The front section of a ship or boat.

Bow Thruster
A small propeller mounted sideways in the bow of a vessel to aid maneuverability.

Box-scale
Model kits made in 'fit-the-box' size. See What exactly is a scale model?.

Brass
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, but often other elements such as aluminium, iron, manganese, tin and lead are added.

Brushstroke
The mark left by a loaded (filled) brush on a surface. Brushstrokes can be distinguished by their direction, thickness, texture, and quality.

BS Standard
British Standard colours.

Buff
To achieve a smooth finish of high luster by polishing with a cloth or fabric wheel to which a compound has been added.

Burr
a) The sharp edge left on metal after cutting or punching. b) A rotary cutting tool designed to be attached to a drill.

Caliper
A measuring instrument used to measure the distance between two points or the inside or outside dimensions of an object.

Camber
Used to define vertical alignment of wheels.

Campaign
A wargaming term used to describe a series of linked battles.

CE Mark
Conformite Europeene (French). Symbol used to indicate that a product conforms to the relevant European health, safety and environmental quality standards. The mark is often found on product packaging.

Cellulose Thinners
A blend of solvents that are very good for removing paint from certain surfaces.

Centres
The centre of rotation of an object.

Chine
The line where the side and bottom of a v-bottomed boat meet.

Circle Cutter
A tool for cutting circles in sheet plastic. Designed like a pair of mathematical compasses with a blade on one arm and a needle point on the other.

Clamp
Any of various devices used to join, grip, support, or compress parts.

Clay Gun
An extruding tool made from die-cast steel. Interchangeable discs provide a simple way to make textural details such as leaves, rope, bricks and tubes from modelling putty or polymer clay.

Clean-up
The final, often routine tasks that complete a project.

Close Combat
Wargaming term used to describe fighting at close range.

Colorant
Concentrated colour (dyes or pigments) that can be added to paints to make specific colours.

Colour Matching
Adjusting paint composition so that it conforms to an agreed standard.

Colour Rendering
How a particular colour looks in specific lighting conditions. Different types of light render colour differently. For example, natural sunlight contains more blue light, whereas artificial lights contain more orange. Thus blues will appear more intense in daylight than artificial light. See also metamerism.

Colour Wash
Watering down paint to reduce its opacity and give a 'washed' appearance.

Colour Wheel
A circular diagram in which primary and usually intermediate colours are arranged sequentially so that related colours are next to each other and complementary colors are opposite.

Command Control
A way of controlling trains by sending electronic messages through the rails.

Component
One part of an unassembled model kit.

Conversion
To change the appearance of a standard model by adding or removing elements, manipulating components or by altering pose.

Conversion of Units
Conversion factors from Imperial to Metric to Imperial for length, area, volume or mass.

Coverage
The spreading rate of a paint or coating, usually expressed in metres squared per litre.

Crackle
A paint effect where a surface is covered with a network of fine cracks similar to crazing.

Crazing
Dried paint that has developed lines resembling crazy paving. Causes include incomplete drying of the paint film below when recoating, where the solvent in the topcoat re-dissolves the first coat, or by an aggressive solvent in the topcoat attacking the first coat. If using different types of paint in successive coats you should always do a test area on some excess plastic or cardboard first.

Cross-section
A view of the interior of an object as it is sliced along a plane.

Curbside
Term used to describe an automotive kit that does not include engine detail.

Curing
Allowing a paint to fully dry. Curing is the chemical reaction with atmospheric oxygen that dries solvent-based paints. It is also responsible for skins appearing in paint cans, caused by the can not being fully airtight when closed.

Cyanoacrylate
More commonly known as 'Super Glue'.

Daylight Simulation Bulb
A bulb that mimics natural light.

Dead Centre
The exact centre of an object.

Decal Fixative
A water-based solution for softening decals and securing them into position.

Decals
Transfers bearing markings that were applied to the original of what the model's based on. Decals finish a model off and give it distinctive markings. They are commonly produced in gloss or matt finishes.

Deck
The flat surface topping a ship's hull. Also describes the 'levels' of a ships' hull.

Die
a) A metal block containing small conical holes through which plastic, metal, or other ductile material is extruded or drawn. b) A device used for cutting out, forming, or stamping material.

Diecast
A part formed by forcing molten metal into a die.

Diorama
A scale model scene made up from models set in a realistic background.

Display Case
A display case gives the finishing touch to a model and keeps it clean and free from dust.

Dope
A type of lacquer used to protect, waterproof, and tighten the cloth surfaces of airplane wings.

Draught
The amount of water required to float a vessel.

Drill Bits
Normally made of hardened or high speed steel with two cutting edges on the conical end with two helical flutes that act to move material away from the cutting edges.

Dry Fitting
The assembling of a model without glue to check that parts fit together. Dry fitting can prevent time-consuming and costly mistakes later in the build process.

Drybrush
A technique used to simulate wear and tear on a model. A brush that's almost free of paint is run across an edge or raised area to give a weathered or worn look. Drybrushing can ruin a brush quickly, so it can be advisable to use an older brush.

Ear Plugs
Device which go in the ear. Designed to protect hearing from noise produced by loud machinery.

Earthworks
Sculptural representation of earth, rocks or plants.

Eggshell
A gloss level lying between semi-gloss and flat matt. Eggshell is very similar to satin finish.

Ejector Pin Marks
Small round impressions usually found on the back of plastic parts.

Electro-plating
The coating of an electrically conductive item with a layer of metal using electrical current. The result is a thin, smooth, even coat of metal on the object.

Enamel
Solvent-based paint that comes in a variety of gloss levels. It can be applied by brush or airbrush, or sometimes both, depending on product specification.