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Doconsite - Glossary of Document, Records and CMS
Category: Business and Law
Date & country: 11/11/2007, UK
Words: 420


Network
Communications link between computers and peripherals. See LAN, WAN

OAIS
Open Archive Information System. Standards for digital archiving.

Object Oriented Programme
See OOP

OCR
Optical Character Recognition. Technique for analysing images and recognising and translating the alphanumeric characters into machine-readable text. See also ICR

ODA
Open Document Architecture. Open Document Architecture and ODIF (Open Document Interchange Format) are standards to facilitate the storage and interchange of documents in formatted/processable and formatted processable formats.

ODBC
Open Database Connectivity standard for linking client workstation with server database.

Off-line
Storage classification that requires users to perform a manual action to access information. Thus information stored on a magnetic tape or disk not directly accessible by a computer is considered to be off-line.

OJEC
Official Journal of the European Communities. See OJEU

OJEU
Official Journal of the European Union. Tendering process required by EC Directives for public sector procurement where the value exceeds an annually updated threshold. The process starts with a notice in the OJEU (previously OJEC). OJEU is now online via the Tenders Electronic Daily (TED) database. See also Catalist

OLE
Object Linking and Embedding. A Microsoft standard for processing compound documents.

OMR
Optical Mark Reading. A recognition technology for detecting the presence or absence of marks in a defined space, e.g. ticks or crosses in boxes, etc.

Online
Storage classification for storage directly accessible by program, without manual intervention. Thus information stored on a hard disk is considered to be online.

OOP
Object Oriented Program. Application in which data and the means to process it are stored together. The combination of data and processes creates an object. Fully defined objects can be linked together to form applications without further programming.

Open Doc
Rival to OLE supported by Apple and IBM.

Open Document Architecture
See ODA

Open Source
A program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge.

Open Systems Interconnect
See OSI

Optical Character Recognition
See OCR

Optical disk
A disk coated with a recording medium on which binary information is recorded and read using a laser. Abbreviated as OD. See also Erasable disk, WORM

OSI
Open Systems Interconnect. Set of interface standards promoted by ISO and aimed at allowing the exchange of information between computers, networks and applications.

Output device
Device by which a computer presents data in human readable form, e.g. displays, printers, COM recorders, etc.

pages per minute
See ppm

Pattern matching
A technique used by OCR software.

PC
Personal Computer. Desktop microcomputer for individual use.

PCX
Picture Exchange format. File format used by many painting packages including PC Paintbrush.

PD0008
see

PD0009
see BIP 0009:2004

PD0010
(full name BSI DISC PD0010:1997) Principles of good practice for information management.

PDA
Personal Digital Assistant

PDF Portable Document Format.
The platform-independent document format used by Adobe`s Acrobat universal distribution viewer.

PDF-A
PDF Archive format for the long-term preservation of documents.

PDM
Product Data Management.

Pel
Contraction of Picture Element. See Pixel

Personal computer
See PC.

Petabyte (PB)
One thousand terabytes.

Pixel
Abbreviation of Picture Element. The smallest element (or dot) on a display. The closer the spacing of the pixels, the higher the resolution and the sharper the image.

PKI
Public Key Infrastructure—a system of digital certificates that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an Internet transaction.

Planetary camera
Type of microfilm camera on which the document is placed on a fixed copyboard and microfilmed using a camera head supported above (usually) the copyboard. The document and the film remain statuary during the exposure. See also Rotary camera

Plotter
A particular form of printer for output of graphical information, e.g. artwork, drawings, maps, graphs.

PNG
Portable Network Graphics. An extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color, grayscale, and truecolor images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits.

Portable Document Format.
See PDF

Portal
Literally a gateway. Used to mean intelligent browser software that allows users to personalise their search engine, to define websites and document libraries and subject interest profile so that they are alterted when new documents that meet their subject interest profiles are added to those sites/libraries. Provides unified access to internal document repositories and third party websites. Can be divided into personal, workgroup, corporate and enterprise portals.

PostScript
A page description computer programming language from Adobe Systems that allows the creation, viewing and printing of digital graphics and type.

ppm
pages per minute. Commonly used measure for the output speed of printers and input speed of scanners.

Print server
A computer on a network devoted to accepting and storing print data and routing it to one or more printers.

Printer
An output device for producing a hard copy of textual or graphic information. Several types of printer are available for image handling e.g. laser, LED, liquid crystal, thermal transfer, ink jet.

PRO
See The National Archives

Processor (microfilm)
Automatic machine for processing exposed microfilm.

PRONOM
A resource developed by the National Archives to register data file formats and supporting software products.

Proximity searching
In a full/free text retrieval system the ability to locate a word or item within a specified proximity of another word or item.

RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A bank of hard disks which is usually an extension to a computer system. Data is organised on the disks such that the failure of any single disk does not cause a total loss of data. This enables the system to continue in use while the faulty disk is replaced.

Ranking
Text searching technique which ranks (orders) located reference in order of compliance with search criteria.

Raster graphics
The technique of displaying an image as a series of points in a column and row grid format. Each point is called a pixel and has a value which describes the point in terms of its colour and intensity. The outputs from fax machines, scanners and television cameras are all raster images. See also Bit map, Image

RDBMS
Relational DataBase Management System. A database system in which information is stored in separate tables which can then be related, e.g. a client name and address would be stored once and other files would store a ‘relationship`, such as a client number, in order to retrieve the related information.

Reader-printer
A type of microfilm reader equipped with a printing capability able to produce a paper copy of the image displayed on the viewing screen.

Record
Any piece of information created or received and maintained by an organisation or person in the course of their business or conduct of affairs and kept as evidence of such activity.

Record retention schedule
A schedule that details the categories of records an organisation is required to store. It outlines the length of time different categories of records should be stored, and when they can be deleted.

Records Management
The function of managing records to meet organisational needs, business efficiency and legal and financial accountability.

Redaction
The blanking out of a part of a document or record. A copy of a record on which some information has been blanked.

Resolution
(i) In electronic imaging it defines the clarity and information content of a bit-map. Often measured in dots per inch (dpi) and commonly used as part of the specification of printers, scanners and computer displays. (ii) In micrographics it is a measure of a photographic system`s ability to resolve fine detail. Measurements are made with the aid of a resolution test chart. Unit = line pairs per millimetre.

Rewritable
A disk that is capable of being rewritten. This term is normally associated with optical disks which may also be Read Only or Write Once Read Many (WORM). Disks may be single or double sided. See also Erasable disk

RIM
Records and Information Management.

Rotary camera
A type of microfilm camera in which the document is transported round a roller and imaged as it passes through the camera. The film is moved during exposure in synchronisation with the movement of the document.

RTF
Rich Text Format

S-Cat
See Catalist.

SAN
Storage Area Network. Similar to NAS but connected to TCP/IP networks using fibre channel and a SCSI interface.

Scanner
A device for converting analogue documents, e.g. paper or film, into digital form for entry into a computer. Most scanners use one or more linear CCD arrays in conjunction with a lens/mirror optical system to capture each document as a series of closely spaced lines. Special scanners are available to capture large format documents, typically up to A0 size, transparent originals such as microforms, and bound material such as books.

Server
A computer dedicated to serving other computers. Common server applications are the central storage of files which are in shared usage and control of system peripherals such as printers which are shared by a group of users.

Service bureau
A company specialising in the provision of micrographic or electronic imaging services under contract.

SGML
Standard Generalised Mark-up Language. An internationally recognised (ISO 8879) encoding system used to describe the content and organisation of an electronic document independently of computer platforms and applications.

SLA
Service Level Agreement.

SME
Small to Medium size Enterprise.

SMS
Short Message Service.

SOAP
Simple Object Access Protocol. Protocol using XML over http to enable applications to communicate with each other via the Internet.

SQL
Structured Query Language. A method of searching and retrieving information from database systems. Initially defined by ANSI with the objective of creating a common means of accessing data from different databases and of transferring data between databases.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer—a protocol for transmitting private documents via the Internet.

Step-and-repeat camera.
A type of planetary microfilm camera for producing microfiche. The film is moved (stepped) between exposures to place the document images in rows and columns.

Systems integrators
In the context of content management, companies which supply third-party products and provide services for their implementation, integration and support.

Taxonomy
A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organised into a hierarchical structure. Similar to thesaurus.

TCP-IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Widely used set of protocols developed by the US Department of Defense to link different computers across networks. Used in the Internet superhighway.

Terabyte
(TB)

Text-image retrieval
A facility that allows full/free text retrieval techniques to locate and retrieve document images.

The National Archives
The National Archives (www.nationalarchives.gov.uk) looks after state and central court documents from the Domesday Book to the present, making them available at its reading rooms in Kew and at the Family Records Centre in central London for anyone who wishes to see them. The National Archives also provides access to certain documents online. The National Archives works with central government to help select documents now, which will be opened to the public in 30 years` time and also provides advice for central government record officers, certain archives and, increasingly, for local government to ensure these records are looked after in a way which will guarantee their preservation for future generations. The National Archives is leading in the area of digital preservation and is a renowned expert in conservation. (The National Achives was formed in April 2003 by the joining of the Public Record Office (PRO) and the Historical Monuments Commission (HMC).

Thesaurus
A controlled vocabulary of terms used to aid document indexing and searching.

Thresholding
Image processing technique which defines whether a scanned pixel should be considered black or white. Commonly used to drop out background colours in order to clarify the textual content or line work of a document.

TIFF
Tagged Image File Format. A tag-based file format that is designed to promote the interchange of digital image data. The tag (or header) would typically hold information such as the size of a document and the resolution at which it was captured. Used for fax and scanned images.

Tiling
Reproducing large format documents, e.g. drawings, maps, etc., by breaking the image into parts or tiles.

TNA
See The National Archives

Transaction processing
Workflow type application aimed at the processing of transaction type documents, i.e. cheques and application forms.

Transfer rate
The rate at which data is transferred to and from a device. Normally expressed in bits/second rather than bytes/second e.g. kilobits or megabits per second.

UDO
Ultra Density Optical. The 30GB standard for professional optical storage. Based on high density, blue laser technology, UDO is the next generation to 5.25 inch MO (Magneto Optical) storage.

Uniform Resource Locator
see URL

UNIX
Uniplexed Information Computing Service. An operating system widely used in computers employing RISC technology. Has much greater functionality than DOS from a system viewpoint and supports open system objectives on medium and large system servers.

URL
Uniform Resource Locator. Short strings that identify resources in the Web, e.g. documents, images, downloadable files, services, electronic mailboxes, and other resources. They make resources available under a variety of naming schemes and access methods, such as http, ftp and Internet mail, addressable in the same simple way.

VAR
Value Added Re-seller. Re-sells systems with added software value.

Vector graphics
The technique of manipulating or displaying an image whereby each line, object and shape is described by a formula from which it can be reconstructed. Vector graphics are preferred for Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems.

Vesicular film
A heat-processed photographic film used for microfilm duplication. Requires exposure to ultra-violet light and produces an image of the opposite polarity to the original.

Visual Basic
An extension of Basic which takes advantage of the graphical capabilities of modern systems. Predominantly used with PCs.

W3C
World Wide Web Consortium. A forum for information and the development of specifications for the web (www.w3.org).

WAI
Web Accessibility Initiative. W3C initiative to develop strategies, guidelines and resources to help make the Web accessible to people with disabilities.