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Doconsite - Glossary of Document, Records and CMS
Category: Business and Law
Date & country: 11/11/2007, UK
Words: 420


Greyscale range
The range is determined by how sensitive the scanner is to light or dark. The greater the range the more gradations of greyscale. 8 bits of data per pixel allows 256 different levels of grey. 4 bits per pixel allows 16 levels.

Group III-IV
Prevalent compression techniques for raster images developed by CCITT for fax. Group III typically provides compression ratios of 5-20:1. Group IV typically provides ratios of 15-30:1 for textual documents. The real figures depend on the original document.

Groupware
Software which builds on LAN`s, e-mail and database software to support collaborative working and the sharing of documents and other information in workgroups. Document management and shared document databases are an important part of most groupware software application packages.

GSM
Global System for Mobile communication

GUI
Graphical User Interface. Enables computer users to select applications and functions by selecting on-screen picture buttons (icons) using a mouse or similar pointing device, e.g. MS-Windows for MS-DOS, Presentation Manager for OS/2.

Halftone
An image in which shades of grey are simulated by black dots of different sizes. The screening process used to produce half tone images.

Handprint Character Recognition
See HCR

Handwriting recognition
The conversion of handwriting into machine-readable text.

Hard disk
Usually means a magnetic disk drive.

HCR
Handprint Character Recognition. Type of optical character recognition for converting images of handprinted characters into coded form, e.g. ASCII, WP format.

Hierarchical Storage Management
See HSM

HSM
Hierarchical Storage Management. Management system whereby data which becomes less active is migrated from expensive hard disks to lower cost mass storage alternatives.

HTML
HyperText Markup Language. The format of most files published on the World Wide Web. HTML is an application of SGML.

HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol. The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (www).

Hybrid
Term used to describe document management systems which make use of both digital and analogue technology, i.e. paper, film and digital storage.

Hyperlink
A link from one document to another, or to any resource, or within a document.

Hypertext
Any text that can be chosen by a reader and which causes another document to be retrieved and displayed.

HyperText Markup Language
See HTML

ICR
Intelligent Character Recognition. Recognition processes in which a document image (bit-map) is converted to coded text, e.g. ASCII, word processing format. Involves advanced techniques such as feature analysis and artificial intelligence. Able to recognise a wider range of type styles and sizes that Optical Character Recognition. See also OCR

IGES
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. The IGES standard for engineering, product design and manufacturing drawings is one of the CALS standard graphics formats.

IIS
Microsoft`s Internet Information Server

ILM
Information Lifecycle Management. The practice of applying records management policies to the effective management of information throughout its useful life. ILM is also used by the IT industry to denote the use of storage devices to manage information more cost-effectively over time according to its usage.

IM
(i) Information Management, (ii) Instant Messaging—a method of real-time communication between people using typed text.

IM@T.Online
Cimtech`s online monthly journal Information Management & Technology.

Image
The digital representation in a computer system of a picture or graphic.

Image enhancement
The use of image processing techniques to improve the quality of an electronic image.

Image processing
The manipulation of digital images after they have been scanned and digitised. Includes rotation, zoom, enhancement, analysis, etc.

Image resolution
Measure of image quality. Defined as dots per inch (dpi) e.g. 200dpi..

Imaging
The process of capturing, storing and retrieving information, regardless of its original format, using micrographics and/or scanning and optical disk technologies.

Index
Descriptive data that enables desired information to be retrieved. Image data in DIP has no inherent meaning (unless OCR is applied) and hence all stored images must be indexed for subsequent retrieval. Index information is usually entered by filling in an on-screen form. On some systems OCR/ICR or barcode recognition may be used to automate the task by reading specified segments of the document, e.g. customer number.

Information lifecycle management
See ILM

Information Management & Technology
See IM@T.Online.

Integrated Services Digital Network
See ISDN

Intelligent Character Recognition
See ICR

International Telecommunication
Union

Internet
A network of computer systems started from a requirement by the US defence industry to link together their many computers. The Internet is not so much a network of computers but a network of networks. There has been a huge explosion of interest in the Internet during the last two years from both business and home users.

Intranet
Essentially a private Internet. It makes use of the same technology as the Internet but is used to establish a network that is private to a company or organisation. It resides behind a ‘firewall` and cannot be accessed by people outside.

IPSV
Integrated Public Sector Vocbulary. An encoding scheme for keywords in the e-GMS Subject element of metadata.

iSCSI
Internet SCSI. An IP based standard for linking data storage devices over a network and transferring data by carrying SCSI commands over IP networks.

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital data communications service which can operate over any telephone linked to a digital exchange. ISDN offers much higher transmission speeds than conventional analogue modems and the call costs are much lower. Typical data rate is 128K baud and calls cost the same as ordinary telephone calls.

ISO
International Organisation for Standardisation. A United Nations organisation which publishes standards (www.iso.org). See also AFNOR, ANSI, BSI, DIN

ISO 14721
A reference model for an open archival information system (OAIS).

ISO 15489
(PD ISO/TR 15489-2:2001) Information and documentation. Records management. Guidelines. Also BS ISO 15489-1:2001 to be read in conjunction with above.

ISO 27000
A series of international information security management standards incorporating ISO 17799.

ISO 2788
Guidelines for monolingual thesauri.

ITT
Invitation To Tender

ITU
See International Telecommunication Union

J2EE
Java 2 Enterprise Edition—a Java development environment from Sun Microsystems incorporating applications, a suite of tools and services for developing, building and deploying web-based enterprise applications online.

Jacket (microfilm)
Unitised microform comprising two layers of clear, flexible plastic bonded or welded together to form channels into which strips of 16mm or 35mm film can be inserted. Commonly used in applications where there is a need to update files periodically. Microfilm jackets are most commonly A6 size. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as microfiche.

Java
A network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs—Applets—web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other features.

JBIG
Joint Bi-level Image Group. A new international standard compression algorithm for black and white and halftone image information. A lossless compression algorithm designed to offer compression improvements of up to 180 per cent over CCITT Group 3 and 4.

JPEG2000
An image coding system developed by JPEG that uses state-of-the-art compression techniques based on wavelet technology. It is particularly focused on providing improved quality, performance and error resilience for highly compressed images in low bandwidth and noisy transmission environments.

Jukebox
A machine which allows a large number of optical disks to be held near-line. It consists of disk racks with space for one or more disk drives and one or more robotic pick-and-place mechanisms. The robotic mechanism retrieves the specified disk from the rack, loads it, correctly oriented, into a disk drive, and/or returns the last disk read to the storage rack position.

Key
Unique identifiers such as ID numbers, file references, etc. logically associated with an image document and used as index information.

Keyword
A significant word in a document that helps to define the content of the document.

Keyword AAA
A records management thesaurus of general terms to provide control over the vocabulary used for titling and indexing records.

Kilo
One thousand units

Kilobyte
(KB

KM
see Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management
Organisational processes that seek synergistic combination of the data and information processing capacity of information technologies with the creative and innovative capacity of human beings (Yogesh Malhotra). A subdivision of document/content management primarily concerned with facilitating access to the knowledge/information held in documents. Places accent on portals, full text retrieval and auto classification to aid subject searching.

LAN
Local Area Network. A network of connected devices, typically within a small area such as an office or building, supporting high-speed transmission of data over twisted pair, coaxial cable or fibre optic cable.

LCD
Liquid Crystal Display. A display in which a layer of liquid crystals is held between two flat panels. Electronic signals change the structure of the crystals from transparent to opaque and back lighting (or reflected light) makes the image visible. See also LED

LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A set of protocols for accessing use and information directories.

LED
Light Emitting Diode. A display in which an electric current causes a semi-conductor circuit to generate light. No longer popular in portable equipment because of high power usage in comparison with LCD. See also LCD

LGCS
Local Government Classification Scheme. A functional classification scheme (fileplan) from the Records Management Society of Great Britain designed to meet the needs of local government.

Library unit
See Jukebox

Light Emitting Diode
See LED

Linux
A version of UNIX that has gained popularity because of its stability as an operating system for hosting web servers. Linux is open source software and is freely available over the Internet.

Liquid Crystal Display
See LC

Local Area Network
See LAN

Lossless
Compression techniques that operate without the loss of data.

Lossy
Compression techniques that can involve the loss of data.

LZW
Lempel Ziv Welch. A lossless data compression algorithm for greyscale in particular.

Macintosh
A family of personal computers from Apple Computer, Inc.

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition.
See MICR

Magneto Optical
See MO

Mainframe
Class of large, general-purpose computer forming the central part of a data processing system.

MAPI
Messaging Application Programming Interface. A system built into Microsoft Windows that enables different e-mail programs to interface to distribute e-mail. When both programs are MAPI-enabled, they can share messages.

MB
Megabyte. Approximately 1 million bytes.

MCR
Machine-print Character Recognition.

Mean Time Between Failure
See MTBF

Mega
1 million units.

Megabyte
See MB

Metadata
Data associated with documents to provide information on their contents, context and use.

Microfiche
Sheet of microfilm containing an array of micro-images arranged in accordance with a standard grid, e.g. 7 rows and 14 columns, and usually including an eye-legible title along the top edge. Commonly A6 in size. Frequently used in micropublishing applications.

Microfilm
High-resolution photographic film suitable for recording micro-images of documents. Often used to refer to microfilm in roll format, e.g. 16mm microfilm.

Microfilm camera
Camera used for microfilming documents. See also Camera-processor, Planetary camera, Rotary camera, Step-and-repeat camera

Microform
General term for any film (or paper) format containing micro-images.

Micrographics
Generic term given to the recording of information onto microfilm and the retrieval of information from microfilm.

MO
Magneto Optical. A rewritable optical disk technology. It stores data as a magnetic pattern which can be changed by a combination of a magnetic field and the heat generated locally by a laser beam. Reading is by detecting the direction of rotation of the reflected polarised laser beam from the magnetised spot.

Modem
Contraction of Modulator/Demodulator. Electronic equipment which changes digital computer data to analogue data (and vice versa) for transmission/reception over telephone lines. See also ISDN

Monitor
See Display

MoReq Specification
Model Requirements for the management of electronic records. The MoReq specification describes model requirements for the management of electronic records. It focuses mainly on the functional requirements for the management of electronic records by an electronic records management system (ERMS). To be superseded by MoReq2.

MOSS
Microsoft Office Sharepoint Server.

MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group)
Grouping associated with ISO who have defined the MPEG compression/decompression standard for motion video images. See also JPEG

MS-DOS
See Microsoft Disk Operating System. Disk operating system most commonly used by PCs. See also DOS

NAS
Network Attached Storage. A disk array storage system that is set up with its own TCP/IP network address rather than being attached to the department computer that is serving applications to a network`s workstation users. By removing storage access and its management from the department server, both application programming and files can be served faster because they are not competing for the same processor resources.

NDAD
National Digital Archive of Datasets. A service of the National Archives.

Near-line
Storage classification enabling users relatively fast access to information, e.g. information stored on a disk within a jukebox under control of the program.

Negative
An image in which the tones of the original appear reversed. Most first generation microfilm has a negative appearing image. Electronic images can easily be switched between negative and positive.