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Derek Haselden - Astronomical Glossary
Category: Meteorology and astronomy > Astronomy
Date & country: 05/11/2007, UK
Words: 664


Europa
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Eurydome
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Euterpe
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hind on 8 Nov 1853. Diameter in km: 116. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Extinction
The apparent reduction in brightness of a celestial object when it is low in the sky and much of its light is absorbed by Earth's atmosphere.

Faculae
Bright patches seen of the photosphere during solar observation.

Faye
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 7.34years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Fides
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Luther on 5 Oct 1855. Diameter in km: 96. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Finlay
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.76years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Fireball
A very brilliant meteor.

Flocculi
Patches on the Sun's surface visible with spectroscopic equipment.

Flora
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hind on 18 Oct 1847. Diameter in km: 162. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Focal length
The distance between a lens or mirror and the point where it brings light to a focus.

Focal ratio
The focal length of a telescope divided by its aperture (opening) or primary mirror diameter.

Forbes
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.27years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Fornacis
The constellation Fornax. English name: The Furnace. Visibility: Parts visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Fornax
English name: The Furnace. Genitive name: Fornacis. Visibility: Parts visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Fortuna
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hind on 22 Aug 1852. Diameter in km: 198. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Fraunhofer lines
Dark absorption lines seen in the spectrum of the Sun.

Galatea
Satellite of the planet Neptune. See TABLE 10. NEPTUNE - SATELLITE DATA

Gale
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 11.3years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Ganymede
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Gauss
A unit of measurement of a magnetic field. Earth has a surface magnetic field strength of between 0.3 and 0.6 Gauss.

Gehrels 1
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 14.5years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Gehrels 2
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 7.98years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Gehrels 3
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 8.14years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Gemini
English name: The Twins. Genitive name: Geminorium. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Geminids
Meteor shower. Most active day is Dec.13. Rich shower of medium speed meteors. Many bright events.

Geminorium
The constellation Gemini. English name: The Twins. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Geocentric
Meaning: As seen from the centre of Earth. A system of co-ordinates.

Giant stars
Stars that are swelling in size as they approach the end of their lives. Giant stars are often no more massive than the Sun but they have expanded to great size and are therefore less dense but highly luminous.

Gibbous
The phase of the Moon or a planet when it is between half and fully illuminated.

Giclas
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.96years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Great circle
A circle on the surface of a sphere whose plane passes through the centre of that sphere.

Gruis
The constellation Grus. English name: The Crane. Visibility: Parts visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Grus
English name: The Crane. Genitive name: Gruis. Visibility: Parts visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Gunn
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.82years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Halo, galactic
A roughly spherical shaped region around the main part of the Galaxy.

Harmonia
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Goldschmidt on 31 Mar 1856. Diameter in km: 116. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Harpalyke
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Harrington
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.78years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Harrington-Abell
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 7.59years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Hebe
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hencke on 1 Jul 1847. Diameter in km: 204. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Helene
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Heliocentric
Meaning: As seen from the centre of the Sun. A system of co-ordinates.

Hercules
English name: Hercules. Genitive name: Herculis. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hercules
The constellation Hercules. Genitive name: Herculis. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Herculis
The constellation Hercules. English name: Hercules. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hermippe
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Herschel-Rigollet
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 155years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
A diagram in which stars are plotted according to their spectral type and their absolute magnitude.

Hestia
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Pogson on 16 Aug 1857. Diameter in km: 164. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Himalia
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Holmes
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 7.06years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 5.30years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Horologii
The constellation Horologium. English name: The Pendulum Clock. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Horologium
English name: The Pendulum Clock. Genitive name: Horologii. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Howell
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 5.94years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Hubble's constant
The rate of increase of the recession of a galaxy with increased distance from the Earth. This figure varies depending on which observational data one uses but is often around 50 miles per second per Megaparsec.

Hydra
English name: The Water-Snake. Genitive name: Hydrae. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hydrae
The constellation Hydra. English name: The Water-Snake. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hydrus
English name: The Small Water-Snake Hydri. Genitive name: Hyi. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hygeia
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by De Gasparis on 12 Apr 1849. Diameter in km: 430. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Hyi
The constellation Hydrus. English name: The Small Water-Snake Hydri. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Hyperion
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Iapetus
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Ijiraq
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Indi
The constellation Indus. English name: The Indian. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Indus
English name: The Indian. Genitive name: Indi. Visibility: Never visible from the UK. See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Io
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Iocaste
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Irene
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hind on 19 May 1851. Diameter in km: 150. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Iris
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Hind on 13 Aug 1847. Diameter in km: 208. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Isis
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Pogson on 23 May 1856. Diameter in km: 94. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Isonoe
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Jackson-Neujmin
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 8.24years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Janus
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Johnson
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.94years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Jovian
Pertaining to the planet Jupiter.

Juliet
Satellite of the planet Uranus. See TABLE 9. URANUS - SATELLITE DATA

Juno
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Harding on 1 Sep 1804. Diameter in km: 288x230. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Jupiter
SOLAR SYSTEM - PLANETARY ORBITAL DATA
Average dist.from Sun (AU) - 5.203
Min. distance from Sun (AU) - 4.952
Max. distance from Sun (AU) - 5.455
Eccentricity of orbit - 0.048
Inclination to ecliptic(°) - 1.31
SOLAR SYSTEM - PLANETARY PERIODS AND MOTIONS
Sidereal period (days or years) - 11.863 y
Mean orbital velocity(km/sec.) - 13.07
Sidereal period of axial rotation - 9.842 h
Inclination of equator to ecliptic(°) - 3.13
SOLAR SYSTEM - PLANETARY PHYSICAL DATA
Equatorial dia.(km) - 142 984
Polar dia.(km) - 133 708
Mass (Earth=1) - 317.83
Volume (Earth=1) - 1321.0
Oblateness (Earth=1) - 0.065
Surface gravity (Water=1) - 2.364
Density - 1.33

Kale
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Kalyke
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Kirkwood gaps
Regions in the asteroid belt where very few asteroid are found. The gaps are caused by Jupiter's gravitational influence which shifts asteroids out of orbit if their orbital period is a precise fraction of Jupiter's orbit.

Kiviuq
Satellite of the planet Saturn. See TABLE 8. SATURN - SATELLITE DATA

Klemola
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 10.9years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Kohoutek
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 6.67years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Kojima
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 7.89years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Kwerns-Kwee
A comet in our solar system with an orbital period of 8.99years. More data in TABLE 14. NOTABLE PERIODIC COMETS

Lacerta
English name: The Lizard. Genitive name: Lacertae. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Lacertae
The constellation Lacerta. English name: The Lizard. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Lagrangian points
Five places where small bodies can exist in stable orbits in the plane of two larger bodies. Three of these points lie in a line joining the two large bodies; one point between the two larger bodies (L1); the other two points either side of them (L2 & L3). The remaining points lie 60° ahead of and behind one of the larger bodies in its orbit around the other (L4 & L5).

Larissa
Satellite of the planet Neptune. See TABLE 10. NEPTUNE - SATELLITE DATA

Latitude, celestial
The angular distance of a celestial object from the nearest point on the ecliptic.

Leda
Satellite of the planet Jupiter. See TABLE 7. JUPITER - SATELLITE DATA

Leda
One of the `minor planets` of our solar system. Discovered by Chacornac on 12 Jan 1856. Diameter in km: 13.00. More data in TABLE 13. THE MINOR PLANETS

Leo
English name: The Lion. Genitive name: Leonis. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Leo Minor
English name: The Smaller Lion. Genitive name: Leonis Minoris. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Leonis
The constellation Leo. English name: The Lion. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.

Leonis Minoris
The constellation Leo Minor. English name: The Smaller Lion. Visibility: Visible from the UK See TABLE 20: THE CONSTELLATIONS.