Copy of `Pearson Longman - Glossary of science`

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Pearson Longman - Glossary of science
Category: Sciences
Date & country: 26/10/2007, UK
Words: 187


Egg cell
The female sex cell (gamete).

Ejaculation
[pronounce: edge-ack-you-lay-shun] Semen is pumped out of a man's penis into the top of the vagina during sexual intercourse.

Elastic
Any substance that will return to its original shape and size after it has been stretched or squashed.

Electrical charges
Tiny pieces of material contained in the particles that things are made of. If the electrical charges are made to move, you get an electric current.

Electrical conductor
A material that lets electricity flow through it easily.

Electrical current
A flow of electrical charges. Another name for electricity.

Electrical energy
The kind of energy carried by electricity.

Electrical insulator
A material that does not let electricity flow through it easily.

Electricity
A common word for electrical current.

Elliptical
[pronounce: e-lip-tick-al ] Oval shaped. The shape of a planet's orbit around the sun.

Embryo (human)
[pronounce: em-bree-O] Tiny new human life which grows in the uterus.

Embryo (plant)
[pronounce: em-bree-O] Tiny pland, found inside a seed, with a very small shoot and a very small root.

Energy
Something that is needed to make things happen.

Energy flow diagram
A diagram showing energy changes.

Erection
When the penis becomes stiff.

Evaporating
[pronounce: ev-ap-pour-ate-ing] A liquid turning into a gas.

Evaporation
[pronounce: ev-ap-pour-ay-shun] A liquid turning into a gas.

Excretion
[pronounce: ex-cree-shun ] Getting rid of waste substances that have been made in the body by chemical reactions.

Excretory system
[pronounce: ex-cree-tor-ee] Set of organs that get rid of waste from our bodies.

Exoskeleton
[pronounce: ex-O-skel-e-ton ] Thick outer covering found in arthropods.

Expansion
[pronounce: ecks-pan-shun] When something is getting bigger.

Extra terrestrial
[pronounce: extra terr-ess-tree-al] Something from another planet.

Eyepiece lens
Part of the microscope you look down.

Fallopian tube
Carries egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus in women. Fertilisation happens here.

Fern
Plant that has many small waterproof leaves. Reproduces using spores.

Fertilisation
[pronounce: fert-ill-eyes-ay-shun] Joining of a male sex cell (gamete) with a female sex cell (gamete)

Fetus
[pronounce: fee-tus] After an embryo has grown all its organs, it is a fetus. This is usually after about 10 weeks.

Filament
Part of the stamen in flowers. It supports the anther.

Filter
Something with small holes in it used in filtering.

Filtering
Separating things that have not dissolved from a liquid. The liquid is passed throug a filter to do this.

Fish
Vertebrate with wet scales.

Flatworm
Invertebrate with flat, worm-like body (e.g. tapeworm).

Flower
organ containing smaller reproductive organs - carpel (female), stamen (male).

Focusing wheel
Part of a microscope that allows you to see clearly.

Force
A push or pull.

Force meter
Piece of equipment containing a spring, used to measure forces.

Foreskin
A covering of skin protecting the head of the penis.

Fossil
A dead organism that has been trapped in mud and whose body has not completely rotted away.

Fossil fuels
Coal, oil and gas - all fuels that were formed from the remains of dead plants and animals.

Fractionating tower
[pronounce: frac-shon-ay-ting] Large tower used to separate the different liquids in crude oil.

Freezing
A liquid turning into a solid

Freezing point
The temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid.

Friction
A force that tries to slow things down when two things rub against each other.

Fruit
Something used to carry the seeds of flowering plants. Can be fleshy or dry.

Fuel
[pronounce:   ] Anything that stores an energy that can be converted into heat energy - includes fossil fuel and nuclear fuel.

Full moon
The phase of the Moon when it looks like a bright, full circle.

Galaxy
Millions of stars grouped together

Gamete
[pronounce: gam-meet] Scientific word for sex cell.

Gas
See natural gas

Gas
Something made of particles that are very spread out and have no bonds between them.

Generate
Make electricity by turning a magnet inside coils of wire.

Generator
Large coil of wire with a magnet inside. When the magnet is turned, electricity is produced in the coil of wire.

Geothermal power
[pronounce: gee-O-therm-al] Making electricity using heat from hot rocks underground.

Germination
[pronounce: germ-in-ay-shun] When a seed first starts to grow.

Glands
The glands in the male reproductive system add a special liquid to the sperm cells to make semen. There are other sorts of glands in the body.

Global warming
Another term for 'greenhouse effect'.

Gram
A unit for measuring mass (g).

Gravitational potential energy
[pronounce: grav-it-ay-shon-al] The kind of energy stored by anything that can fall to the ground.

Gravity
The force of attraction between any two objects. The Earth is very big and so has a large gravity pulling everything down towards it.

Greenhouse effect
When the Earth warms up more than it should. It is caused by certain gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) keeping heat in the Earth's atmosphere.

Hazard warning symbol
Sign on a container showing what the dangers of the substance inside are.

Heart
Organ that pumps blood.

Heat conductor
A material that lets heat energy flow through it easily.

Heat energy
The hotter something is, the more heat energy it has.

Heat exchanger
Piece of equipment used in desalination to take heat away from steam and turn it into water.

Heat insulator
A material that does not let heat energy flow through it easily.

Hemispheres
[pronounce: hem-ee-sfears] The two halves of a sphere - the shape you would get if you cut a ball in half.

Herb
Plant with a strong flavour used in cooking.

Hydroelectric power
[pronounce: hi-drO-el-eck-trick] Making electricity by letting falling water (usually from a reservoir) turn turbines and generators.

Image
What you see down a microscope.

Implantation
[pronounce: im-plant-ay-shun] When an embryo sinks into the soft lining of the uterus.

Indicator
[pronounce: ind-ic-ay-ter] A dye that will change colour in acids and alkalis.

Inner plantets
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The inner planets are all rocky planets.

Insect
Anthropod with three pairs of legs (e.g.fly).

Insoluble
A solid that will not dissolve.

Insulator
[pronounce: ins-you-lay-ter] A material that does not let energy flow through it.

Intestine
[pronounce: in-test-in] Small intestine is anorgan used to digest and absorb food. Large intestine removes water from unwanted food.

Invertebrate
[pronounce: in-vert-eb-rate] Animal with no backbone.

Irrigation
[pronounce: irr-ig-ay-shun] Watering crops by using channels or pipes.

IVF
Stands for In Vittro Fertilisation. Using modern science to help people have babies.

Joule
[pronounce: jool] The unit for measuring energy (J).

Key
Branching and statement keys. Both are used to find out what something is.

Kidneys
Organs used to clean the blood and make urine.

Kilogram
[pronounce: kill-o-jool] A unit for measuring mass (kg). There are 1000 g in 1 kg.

Kilojoule
There are 1000 joules (J) in 1 kilojoule (kJ).

Kinetic energy
[pronounce: kin-et-ick] The kind of energy in moving things.

Kingdom
Largest groups that living things are sorted into. The two biggest are the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.