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Panasonic - Glossary of panasonic products
Category: Electronics and Engineering
Date & country: 19/09/2007, UK
Words: 129


AAC
Advanced Audio Compression coding provides high quality compressed digital music files in the SD format

Active Speaker
All speakers need amplification. Most speakers are passive so they need to be driven by an external amplifier. An active speaker has a built-in amplifier and therefore does not need to be driven by an external one. Many subwoofers designed for home cinema use tend to be active.

Acuity Core
TV picture quality is determined by factors such as edge delineation, gradation and signal-to-noise ratio. Creating super-high-quality pictures requires precise control over these factors. Panasonic's Acuity Core TV technology does this. It is the world's first platform that provides full 10-bit processing of all video signals in real time, from input all the way through to output. The new Acuity function combines a range of technologies including increased horizontal and vertical resolution, a new 3D Comb Filter and improved Motion Compensation.

Advanced Artificial Intelligence
Keeps contrast levels high, whilst maintaining focus and detail levels.

Advanced Dynamic Sharpness
Controls sharpness in selected areas.

Advanced Progressive Scan
Instead of the standard field by field interlace method this system displays all active lines at once as a complete frame. The result is a picture that is superbly sharp and clear.

Advanced VSS
Advanced Virtual Surround Sound creates a surround sound effect by simulating surround channel sounds using only 2 front speakers. The advanced section creates a wider range from left to right. This effect does not work on karaoke discs

Analogue
A way of storing data using electrical signals. An analogue TV tuner uses radio frequencies which are susceptible to interference. Digital components - such as TVs, radios, recorders, video players, etc, use digital signals which are less prone to interference and offer enhanced quality, ease of use and greater versatility.

Anamorphic
Watch a wide aspect ratio on a conventional 4:3 TV set and you either get big black bars across the top and bottom or the film is 'panned and scanned' so that you only get the central part of the image filling the screen. Either way, you're not getting the whole picture. Most movies on DVD are presented in their original aspect ratio and a widescreen TV is the first step in getting to see the whole image. But because the picture is not an exact fit for the screen's 16:9 shape, you may still get black bars at the top and bottom of the screen. A DVD with an anamorphic widescreen picture gives enhanced quality and digitally squeezes the sides of the picture forcing it upwards and downwards to fill the screen. A widescreen TV then decodes the anamorphic code and a 1.85:1 picture fits perfectly onto a widescreen. An anamorphic 2.35:1 transfer will still have those black bars, but they'll be much smaller.

Aperture
Working much like the pupil of the eye, the movement of the lens' internal aperture blades closes or opens the aperture to adjust the amount of light passing through the lens. The value inscribed on the aperture ring of the lens (F1.4, F2, F2.8, etc.) represents the size of the aperture and is called the 'aperture value' or 'f-stop.' As this value increases, the aperture narrows, or is 'closed,' and as it decreases, the aperture widens, or is 'opened.'

Aspect Ratio
Describes the shape of a screen: a box that is 16cm wide and 9cm high is therefore 16:9. Movies are shot in a particular ratio for particular types of screens. There are four main aspect ratios: 4:3 the shape of a conventional TV and used by older films 16:9 widescreen: a compromise between 4:3 and the wider formats used by film makers 1.85:1 letterbox: the most commonly used picture format 2.35:1 Cinemascope: The widest of the most common ratios and also expensive. Used for the ultimate widescreen experience.

Audio D-A conversion
CD and DVD players need to convert digital signals into analogue so that we can hear them. Panasonic DVD portables use high quality converters for superb sound and they can feature a sample rate of up to 192kHz/24-bit. That means the player samples 24-bit chunks of digital data 192,000 times before it delivers the optimum sound signal.

Bass Reflex
When a loudspeaker produces sound, volumes of air move around inside its cabinets. Big air shifts mean bigger bass. But smaller speakers do not have the physical dimensions to create trouser-flapping lower frequencies. This where a bass reflex port comes in. This is a vent which forces air out from inside the cabinet. Forcing air out in such as way can help smaller speaker enclosures deliver more impactful bass.

Bit
In computer and digital terminology a bit is the smallest unit of data. It is expressed in binary notation so that it is either 0 or 1 - basically an 'off' or an 'on' switch. The word 'bit' is an amalgam of 'binary' and 'digit'.

Built-in digital surround decoder
A portable with a built-in decoder means that you don't need a Dolby Digital or DTS processor - simply connect it to any mul-channel amp for digital surround sound.

CCD
Charged Couple Device- the key image-processing component. A semiconductor chip which coordinates photosensors (pixels) to turn a picture into electronic signals. Most cameras have a 1 chip but the best is a 3CCD unit with a chip for each color element (red, green and blue). The higher the number of pixels the more information can be resolved resulting in a better picture.

CD-R
Audio CD recorders (and also PCs with CD writers) now use two types of blank CD to record sound. CD-Recordable was developed first and is a 'write once' system. That means you cannot erase so if you make a mistake while recording, that's it! When blank CD-Rs first appeared on the market in the late 1980s, they cost around ?16 for a 60-minute disc and the recorders were ?3000 plus! Today, a blank CD-R which offers over 70 minutes of record time can be had for around ?1 and recorders are a fraction of the original price. While most modern CD players can handle homemade recordings on CD-R, some older models may not be able to cope with such discs.

CD-RW
Unlike CD-Rs, CD-RWs are Re-Writable so they can be erased and recorded over again. Great for making the perfect music CD. But take care - not all CD players can playback recordings made on CD-RWs as the format's disc structure differs slightly from conventional audio CDs.

Class H+
A typical receiver's amplifier may not be sufficient to handle extremely high peaks, particularly those needed for the kinds of explosive effects present in movie soundtracks. The Class H+ amplifier has been developed to provide extra 'headroom' and therefore prevents distortion at high volume. It is also very efficient, therefore creating less heat.

Coaxial
There are two types of cables and sockets used to connect digital audio equipment. Optical cables use thin fibre optic leads. Coaxial (or electrical) cables are thicker and the sockets look the same as conventional RCA connectors. Arguably, coaxial digital cables offer better performance but optical ones can be easier to use and hide.

Codec (compressor-decompressor)
A circuit or software module used to compress and/or decompress data. When an analog video signal is converted to a digital signal, the resulting digital data is a massive 20MB per second. The codec is used to compress this data for recording (for example, to a memory card), and then to decompress it to its original form for playback

Commercial Skip
Commercials can be quickly edited out of a recording for seamless and continuous playback of a programme.

Component Video
The video signal is separated into its component form i.e. red, green and blue (RGB). For television, the signal is modified and referred to as YUV. It offers the highest quality of picture reproduction, especially from a DVD source. Component video input connections are usually three RCA phono-type plugs colour coded red, green and blue. Often labeled Y, Pb, Pr

Compression
A process that uses an algorithm to reduce data volume while preserving the original data content. Compression is used to reduce the time required to send and receive data over a network, and to enable the recording of more data onto a memory card or other storage medium.

Crystal Engine
The Crystal Engine is a special image processing circuit for 3CCD camera systems. Processing the signal from each of the three CCDs independently, it gives both moving and still pictures exceptional quality.

Digital Output
Allows DTS or Dolby Digital signals to be taken from a DVD player and fed to an external decoder.

Digital processing
Digital signals need to be converted into analogue so that we can see or hear them. Panasonic TVs with an Acuity digital chassis use high quality converters for superb picture quality and feature 10-bit processing at a sample rate of up to 60MHz. That means the processor samples 10-bit chunks of digital data, 60 million times before it delivers the optimum picture signal.

Digital Signal Processing
Unique Panasonic digital signal processing technologies deliver true-to-life detail and color, with whiter whites, deeper blacks, and superb rendering of fine details such as individual strands of hair.

Digital Zoom
This increases the range of the optical zoom by electronically enlarging the image , bringing distant subjects up close.

Direct linear drive
The Direct Linear Drive motor provides constantly moving inner blades with 13.000 rpm even when battery level is getting lower, or shaving thick hairs.

Dolby Digital (5.1)
Dolby Digital is a form of digital audio coding which makes it possible to store and transmit high quality digital sound. This audio coding can be used for mono, stereo or multi-channel soundtracks. Dolby Digital 5.1 is a multi-channel system used by film producers to deliver five discrete (ie the signals for each channel are recorded independently), full range channels: front left, front right, front centre, left surround and right surround. The .1 refers to the Low Frequency Effects (LFE) channel which is purely for bass and is therefore not full range.

Dolby Pro Logic IIx
Dolby Pro Logic IIx lets you enjoy virtually any programme - music, radio, TV, etc - in surround sound. It converts any stereo or 5.1 sound signal into 6.1 or 7.1 channel output and creates a seamless, natural surround soundfield. Dolby Pro Logic IIx also incorporates an exclusive Game mode that delivers full-impact special effects signals panned to the surrounds.

Dolby Pro-Logic II
Dolby's original Pro-Logic surround sound system developed in the 1980s used four channels - front left, front right, centre and a mono rear. The rear channel's treble frequencies were also limited. Pro-Logic II is an enhanced version with full range stereo output and greatly improved steering logic. It can be used with any kind of stereo programme - CDs, older film and TV material, games, etc - to give surround sound effects.

dpi
Abbreviation for 'Dots per Inch.' Indicates the resolution of a printer, scanner, or monitor. Refers to the number of dots in a one-inch (approx. 25.4-mm) line.

DPOF
Digital Print Order Format allows the user to mark their recorded still images with printing instructions, such as which photos they want to print and how many copies are required. This makes it easier to get prints made at a photo laboratory or to print them at home.

DTS (5.1)
Digital Theater Systems is an alternative digital audio coding system to Dolby Digital and offers high quality audio coding for digital movies, music, TV broadcasts, games, etc. The data rate is much higher than Dolby Digital so in theory it should provide a superior sound.

DVD-Audio
DVD is capable of holding far more digital data than a CD. This data can include audio as well as video signals. DVD-Audio is the next generation audio format and can carry extremely high quality music. DVD-Audio can reproduce frequencies up to 192kHz - that's nearly five times higher than the average person can hear and while these ultra high frequency components are beyond our audible range they play a key part in conveying delicate musical nuances, venue ambience and soundstage imaging. In order to take advantage of music on DVD-Audio, you need a compatible DVD player.

DVD-Audio Ready
DVD-Audio demands a high frequency range from both amplifier and speakers. DVD-Audio ready components are equiped to offer the wider frequency response and better signal to noise ratio required of the format

DVD-R
DVD-Recordable is a write-once format. Once finalised a recorded disc can be played back in virtually any standard DVD-Video player. All Panasonic DVD-RAM recorders are compatible with DVD-R for recording and playback.

DVD-RAM disc
If you want to record using a VCR, you use videocassette. To record using a DVD-RAM recorder you need a blank DVD-RAM disc. Two types are currently available from Panasonic - a 4.7 gigabyte disc which offers 120 minutes of record time and a double-sided 9.4 gigabyte version offering 240 minutes. Of course, with Panasonic's new hard disk recorder you needn't use any type of disc to record.

DVD-RW
Re-writable version of DVD-R. Does not offer the flexibility and versatility of DVD-RAM and cannot be used in Panasonic DVD recorders.

DVD+R-DVD+RW
DVD+R is primarily designed for data as well as video recording. DVD+R is a write-once format so discs cannot be re-written, while DVD+RW can be erased and used again. Unlike DVD-R and DVD-RW, the DVD+ format offers some editing features, but they do not offer DVD-RAM's flexibility in terms of switchable recording modes, Time Slip functions, instant recording, simultaneous record and playback, etc. Panasonic's DVD-RAM recorders for 2005 offer compatibility with this format.

Dynamic Range
Dynamic range describes the ratio of the softest sound to the loudest sound in a musical instrument or piece of electronic equipment. This ratio is measured in decibels (abbreviated as dB) units. Dynamic range measurements are used in audio equipment to indicate a component's maximum output signal and to rate a system's noise floor. As a reference point, the dynamic range of human hearing, the difference between the softest sound we can perceive and the loudest, is about 120 dB. Compressors, expanders, and noise gates are processing devices that are used in audio to alter the dynamic range of a given signal. This is done to achieve a more consistent sound when recording or as a special effect (by radically altering the dynamics of a sound, thereby creating a sound not possible from the original source).

EP Mode
Extended Play mode featured on a Panasonic DVD-RAM recorder. Can offer up to 12 hours of record time when used with a 4.7 gigabyte blank disc.

Ethernet
A PC interface used to connect computers and peripherals in a Local Area Network (LAN). Huge amounts of data can be transmitted quickly over ethernet cables — up to 10,000,000 bits-per-second is possible. The latest Panasonic Hard Disk Recorders feature ethernet connectors so that they can be incorporated in a LAN.

EX Surround
Films with Dolby Digital EX Surround have a third rear channel for more realistic effects: you get a better spread of sound behind you and this adds more realism. To take advantage of this 'back surround channel' you need a compatible processor and an extra speaker which is placed between the two at the back. DTS also has its version of EX called DTS-ES.

FireWire
Popular interface standard for connecting PCs and peripheral devices. Allows 400-Mbps high-speed data transfer. 'FireWire' is the name used by Apple Corporation and is identical to IEEE1394. It is also called 'i.Link.'

HDD
Hard Disk Drive. Although usually associated with computers, Panasonic's top-ranging DVD recorders also feature hard disks. Their enormous capacity can store huge amounts of video and images which can be archived or edited before transferring to a 'soft' disk such as a blank DVD-RAM or DVD-R.

HDMI
HDMI stands for High-Definition Multimedia Interface and offers an easy and convenient way of interconnecting digital audio-video components. With HDMI, digital signals are not compressed - transmission is direct. And because the signal stays in the digital domain, it is free from the degradation and noise that occurs with analogue signal transmission. HDMI is especially suitable for displays which use all-digital image processing (such as plasma screens, LCDs, etc), DVD-Audio, DVD-Video and other high-quality digital formats.

HDTV
HDTV stands for High-Definition Television. This highest-resolution subset of Digital Television offers filmlike picture quality with impressive surround sound. With twice the vertical and horizontal picture resolution, the picture of HDTV is approximately twice as sharp as that of NTSC. HDTV has widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 and Dolby Digital sound system.

HighMAT
Panasonic DVD players equipped with HighMAT (High-performance Media Access Technology - a joint development with Microsoft) can handle discs with a mixture of data (such as different types of picture and sound files) more quickly, smoothly and easily. HighMAT benefits include quicker disc start-up, rapid data access, and easier track navigation thanks to playlist menus.

Intelligent AI LCD
This function automatically determines the brightness of the scene shown on the LCD and adjusts the brightness of the backlight in real-time. It displays images with crisp contrast according to the actual scene (darker for dark portions, brighter for bright portions).

Interlaced Scan
Describes the way that two fields of video information are combined to create a full frame picture. One field containing odd lines and one field containing even lines. Each field is drawn on the TV picture tube in 1/50th second. (1/60th second for NTSC)

Inverter Technology
Unique to Panasonic microwave ovens, the conventional transformer and capacitor have been replaced with an Inverter circuit board. This has many benefits including reducing the weight of the oven, maximising the cooking capacity and most importantly; due to better power control, improving the cooking performance .

IPS
IPS stands for In-Plane-Switching. It was co-developed by key manufacturers including Panasonic, Hitachi and Toshiba. IPS mode system technology is used in TFT LCD displays. It delivers a very wide viewing angle of up to 170 degrees, both horizontally and vertically, with minimal gray-scale inversion (ie, when the screen starts to look blacked out when viewed from the sides). IPS works because the liquid crystal molecules inside the display rotate and therefore remain parallel to the substrate when voltage is applied. This results in perfect orientation of the crystals. An 'Advanced Super' (AS)-IPS mode system is also available for further LCD picture improvements.

Iris Adjustment
To achieve special creative effects or to cope with special lighting situations the iris (F-number) can be adjusted manually to let in more light.

ISO (Sensitivity)
A value used to indicate a film's sensitivity to light. ISO also stands for the International Standards Organization. Since no similarly defined standard exists for digital cameras, the term 'ISO 100 equivalent' is used. A larger ISO value indicates that the camera can take a better picture in dimly lit locations (such as indoors).

JPEG
Stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. It's a universal encoding format for digital still pictures, graphics, etc, so that they can be easily stored and accessed on the internet or on any compatible digital imaging device such as a camera, PC, data card, DVD-Video player, etc.

Leica Dicomar Lens
This advanced lens system actually incorporates 13 individual lenses, which are arranged in 9 groups and work together to deliver images of outstanding quality. Four lens surfaces on three aspherical lenses combine to render ultra-precise images with minimal chromatic aberration. A special multi-coating is applied to the critical parts of six lens surfaces on five lenses to minimise flaring, allowing uniformly high picture quality even under difficult shooting conditions.

Level 2.5 Teletext
Improved teletext with an increased colour palette and more sophisticated graphics and colour options.

Li-ion Battery
Compact and high powered Lithium-ion rechargeable battery pack. These batteries can be charged at any time as they do not suffer from memory effect.

Lux Level
A scale used to measure light intensity. All of our camcorders have a very low lux rating, meaning they can still be used in low light levels.

MACH
Panasonic introduced HD MACH technology with the TH-50PHW6 and TH42PHW6 plasma displays and as a result, brightness levels on these models was boosted by 40 per cent (When compared to a Panasonic 42-inch plasma without HD MACH). The HD MACH (High Definition Multi-facet Asymmetrical Configuration Hyper-pixel) panel is a bounded cell structure made-up of wall-like ribs. These are used to wrap each individual cell. Increasing the area in which the phosphor can be applied dramatically improves both light-emitting efficiency and intensity. Allied to this technology is the unique MACH Enhancer. This improves image contours making them more naturally suited for human eyes. The results are more realistic and lifelike pictures.

Mega Pixel
Mega refers to over 1 Million. The more pixels there are the better the picture quality in video and still mode

Mig Head
Metal In Gap head achieves a boost of luminance signal by up to 30% and chrominance signal by up to 10%. It also greatly reduces noise giving the highest levels of picture quality.

MP3
A compression technique used to squeeze digital music. MP3 stands for MPEG1 (Motion picture experts group 1), audio layer 3 and is commonly used on the internet to reduce the size of a music file. That way, the file takes up less space and is also quicker to upload and download. Because MP3s take up less space, you can burn, or record, significantly more music tracks onto a single CD, for example. But not all CD players can 'decode' the discs with MP3 format tracks. Also note, that while MP3 means more tracks, it also means less quality - compressing a music file inevitably means data loss.

MPEG
Stands for Motion Picture Experts Group and represents a family of digital audio and video coding standards. It enables data compression of sound and movies so that they take up less capacity. This makes them easier to store and access over the web, a PC, a data card, etc. MPEG4 is the latest variant.

MPEG2
This is a standard established by the Moving Picture Experts Group for transmitting broadcast-quality images equivalent to S-VHS. It is one of the compression technologies used in DVD and digital television.

MPEG4
MPEG4 has a high compression ratio, which creates a small file size that's suitable for personal computer and Internet applications.

Multi Format Playback
Panasonic DVD players can play DVD-Audio, DVD-Video, DVD-RAM/R, CD, CD-R/RW, HighMAT (Level 2), WMA, MP3, JPEG and HDCD. A single unit lets you enjoy everything from movies to audio. Compatibility varies depending on the models

Multi Re-master
This interpolation technology, a Panasonic original, increases the data density in CD or DVD signals to reproduce even high-frequency sounds outside the audible range. It increases spatial characteristics to create a level of sound quality that approaches the DVD-Audio format. Multi Re-master processing can also be used with compression formats such as DTS, Dolby Digital, MP3 and WMA to help compensate for signal loss. You get a full, rich sound thats difficult to distinguish from the uncompressed original, even when listening on a high-end sound system.

Multi-direction floating head
The shaver follows the contours of your face and leaves no hair un-shaved. The blades move in all directions. The float selector allows to select three levels of floating distance.

MultiMedia Card
A solid state storage device used to hold digital data.

ND Filter
Abbreviation for Neutral Density Filter. Attached to the front of the camera's lens, it reduces the amount of light entering the lens. When light levels are strong, such as when outdoors in sunshine, attaching an ND filter allows you to use both your maximum aperture and slower shutter speeds.

New 3D RGB Frame Noise Reduction
In this noise reduction system, a separate circuit is used for each of the three RGB colors. Suppressing noise particularly at low illumination levels, these circuits allow bright, detailed recording even in dim lighting.

NICAM
Developed by the BBC in the 1990s, NICAM is a TV sound encoding system. It enables the transmission of programmes in stereo and at 14-bit the sound quality is almost as good as CD. NICAM also allows for simultaneous multi-language broadcasts. To receive a broadcast with NICAM sound, your TV and/or VCR must be equipped with a NICAM decoder. And if you really want to know, it stands for Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex.

NTSC
In the US and Japan, NTSC (National Standards Television Committee) is the standard used for all video equipment. NTSC uses 525 lines to make up a TV picture and scans at 60Hz. Unless otherwise specified, NTSC video equipment is only compatible with NTSC software and TV broadcasts.

OmniCast
The rear speakers in a surround system reproduce the movie sound effects that physically occur behind the listener. More significantly, they?re also used to create atmosphere and ambience which helps to envelop the audience in the on-screen action. In a cinema, these surround effects are often more powerful as multiple rear speakers are used in the rear of the auditorium. In a home cinema, limited space may not allow the use of more than two or three rear speakers. This is where OminiCast comes in. The technology uses reflected, non-directional sound to create the same effect experienced in a cinema with multiple rear speakers. Inside an OmniCast rear speaker, the woofer and tweeter are positioned so that they face upwards. A diffusion board is mounted in front of the tweeter to deflect the sound uniformly over a wide area. The overall effect is surround sound that is expansive both horizontally and vertically delivering an enhanced effect over a broad area. It ensures that all listeners experience pure, dynamic surround sound with amazing acoustic imaging

Optical digital output
This allows you to connect the portable to a digital surround sound processor so that you can take advantage of a movie with a Dolby Digital 5.1 or DTS 5.1 soundtrack. A thin fibre optic cable is needed to connect the two.

Optical Image Stabiliser
The best Stabiliser system on the market, using two gyro sensors, operating 500 times per second, for detecting movement in both the horizontal and vertical axis. Image stabilizing is also possible even during fast zooming. As this is not a digital mode the picture is not affected by its use, allowing far superior picture quality.

PAL
Phase Alternate Line: a commonly used colour TV system and is the standard for all TV and video equipment used in the UK. The PAL system uses 625 lines to make up a video or TV picture and scans at 50Hz. Unless otherwise specified, PAL video equipment is only compatible with PAL software and TV broadcasts.

PC Card Adaptor
The PC Card Standard defines a 68-pin interface between the peripheral card and the socket into which it gets inserted. It defines three standard PC Card form factors, called Type I, Type II and Type III. All PC Cards measure the same length and width, differing only in thickness. Smaller cards can fit in larger sockets. In addition to electrical and physical specifications, the PC Card Standard defines a software architecture to provide 'plug and play' capability across the widest range of products. For Panasonic Products it is a device to allow a memory card to be plugged into a computer for the transfer of data.

PCM Digital Recording
Pulse Code Modulation. Analogue sounds are converted to a digital bitstream signal. 16 bit (48khz) PCM stereo recording allows record and playback with the same sound quality as DAT, which surpasses even CD. Also, in the 12 bit (32khz) mode audio dubbing is possible, utilising 2 stereo channels for the original sound track and 2 more for either narration or music.

PictBridge
PictBridge is a new standard for direct USB printing from digital cameras to inkjet and dye sub photo printers without the use of a computer. To get more information please go to the CIPA PictBridge web page : http://www.cipa.jp/english/pictbridge/index.html

Pixel
Short for: PICture Element, Pixels are the tiny dots of information that make up a digital image. The more pixels there are on the camera's image sensor (CCD or CMOS) or display?s, the higher the image resolution will be. The higher the resolution, the clearer an enlarged print can be.

Progressive Photoshot
Captures the image data and temporarily stores it in two separate field memories. Field A and field B are then combined, eliminating the need for simulations. This results in 1.5 times the resolution of standard-recorded stills for a beautifully clear and brilliant picture.

Progressive Scan
Progressive scan is a method of displaying an image on a cathode ray tube like a standard television (not an LCD or plasma screen.) A progressive scan system displays the entire image once every sixtieth of a second. The true framerate is therefore 60 frames per second.

Pure Colour Engine
The Pure Colour Engine LSI converts the CCD output signal from a complementary colour filter into an RGB signal (containing the three primary colours in light) at an early stage and extracts the low-frequency luminance component from the RGB signal. The luminance signal is then generated in the same way as in TV broadcasting. This innovative LSI achieves virtually the same superb colour reproduction as a 3CCD camera system.

Q-Link
Connecting a QLINK compatible video and recorder and coloured television together via a scart connector simplifies the programming and set up of the VCR. Preset signal information for example is downloaded automatically from the television making tuning straight forward. Also, frustrating mistakes when recording can be avoided by selecting Direct Record and the VCR automatically records the source as displayed on the television screen.

Quad-Density Pixel Distribution
Increases picture resolution by increasing the effective number of pixels on the screen by 1.5 times. Offsetting one CCD half a pixel horizontally and a whole pixel vertically fills in the gaps between the pixels from the other CCDs.

QuickTime-Motion JPEG
A format for recording moving pictures and audio. QuickTime is widely compatible, allowing easy playback of moving pictures and audio on either a Windows or Macintosh computer.

Quintrix SR
With the new Quintrix SR (Super Resolution) tubes, we have enhanced key component technologies to deliver superb picture. It incorporates a new shadow mask configuration featuring a super fine-pitch meshing. This new mask enables greater brightness without any side effects. Plus picture resolution and detail is also dramatically enhanced. Another benefit of the tube is that it virtually eliminates 'picture noise' for instance no jagged edges when you see someone wearing a checked jacket. And finally, the new tube is much more energy efficient.

QuintrixF
Leading picture tube technology. A true flat tube that dramatically reduces screen reflection and ensures accurate, natural imaging across the whole width of the screen.

RAW Format
A name for data read directly from the CCD, that has only been converted from analog to digital. Data output in this format is in its original state, i.e., it has not been processed internally by the digital camera.

RCA
Recording Company of America? RCA (or phono) is the standard way of connecting audio and video components. RCA leads and sockets are usually colour coded: red and white are used to denote the right and left channels respectively for audio components. A single yellow connector is for video equipment

RDS
Radio Data System. It was co-developed by the BBC in the 1980s and virtually all major FM stations now broadcast an RDS signal. RDS offers a variety of features. For example, there is station name ID whereby an RDS-equipped radio displays the name of a station as well as its frequency. And drivers are probably familiar with the traffic feature which automatically alerts you when a station broadcasts traffic news. There is also PTY or Programme Type. This allows you to search all available broadcasts by their programme content - ie news, drama, pop, etc - at the press of a button.

Recording Mode
Panasonic DVD recorders offer four different recording modes: EP (Extended Play), (LP) Long Play, SP (Standard Play) and XP (eXtra Play). Which you choose depends on the quality of recording you want: XP gives the best picture quality but only allows for around one hour of recording using a 4.7 gigabyte blank disc. EP compromises picture quality but can deliver around 12 hours record time.

RGB
Stands for red, green and blue. A video connector or lead which offers RGB output carries these primary colours separately for greater picture quality. Inferior scart leads may not offer RGB, so check before you buy one.

S-VHS
An enhanced version of the VHS video cassette system. The 'S' stands for Super and offers superior picture quality from video tapes - but you need a compatible VCR, tapes and socketry to take advantage of it.

S-Video
A high quality video connection which offers better picture quality than standard RCA or composite connectors. S-Video cables have round, mini four-pin plugs and sockets.