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Food Marketing Insitute - Glossary of Terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 1740


double-bagged
A bagging practice used to reinforce bags of heavy items by putting one bag inside another

double-truck
A newspaper advertisement of two facing pages.

DPC
Direct product cost.

DPP
Direct product profit.

drained weight
The weight of a canned product without the liquid.

dressed fish
A whole scaled, cleaned fish, sold with or without the head.

drop shipment
A retailer's order shipped directly to a store by a manufacturer.

drop trailer
A van filled with merchandise that a driver leaves at a store for unloading.

drop-in display
A display unit that fits into or takes the place of grocery shelves.

drops
The number of retail deliveries made in a day. A list of price reductions.

drug wholesalers
A pharmaceutical wholesaler who sells primarily to chain or single-unit drug stores.

dry grocery
Nonperishable grocery products.

dry grocery non-foods
Products that are not food, such as paper products, detergents, or pet items.

dry mop
A large dust mop.

DSD
Direct store delivery.

dumb terminal
A computer terminal, also called a video display terminal (VDT), that is linked to a remote processor.

dummy-up
A false bottom for displays, which gives the appearance of mass quantities of merchandise.

dump display
Massive amounts of product displayed in bulk, in baskets, or in shipping containers.

dump table
A display table where products are haphazardly piled rather than neatly arranged.

dust collectors
Slow-moving products.

duster
A cleaning tool made of feathers.

DV
Daily value.

EAN
European article number.

early bird allowance
A manufacturer's incentive offered to retailers who order seasonal or promotional items before the season or event begins.

EAS
Electronic article surveillance.

EBIT
Earnings before interest and taxes.

EBT
Electronic benefits transfer.

economy store
A no-frills food store that features a limited selection of low-priced merchandise. High-volume sales and lower operating costs offset a smaller profit margin.

ECR
Efficient consumer response.

EDI
Electronic data interchange.

EDLC
Everyday low cost.

EDLP
Everyday low pricing.

EDP
Electronic data processing.

EEOC
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

efficient assortment
An ECR method to maximize store volume and gross margins. Its key drivers are category and space allocation targeted by store, quicker adjustments of product in response to changes in customer purchases, identification and emphasis on higher volume/margin items, and improved pricing strategies to increase return on investment.

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
A collaborative industry strategy to reduce the costs of goods throughout the system by automatic replenishment shipments to control inventories and better maintain store conditions. Distributors and suppliers work cooperatively with the goal of reducing retail prices and consumer choice of products.

efficient product introductions
An ECR initiative used to accurately time the introduction of new products. that are more directly related to consumer needs.

efficient promotion
An advertising strategy that causes an increase in sales and an improved competitive position for the retailer.

efficient replenishment
A core ECR strategy that integrates data throughout the food distribution system to automatically reorder, transport, and restock products.

EFT
Electronic funds transfer.

egg wash
An egg-based glaze brushed on bakery items to produce a gloss

EIS
Executive information system.

electric jack
A pallet jack, equipped with a battery that operates under its own power to move pallets within a warehouse or store.

electronic benefits transfer (EBT)
A system utilizing a debit card for food stamp recipients to use to purchase products in a retail supermarket.

electronic cash register (ECR)
A stand-alone, point-of-sale terminal used by a cashier to check or scan customer's orders.

electronic coupon clearing
Scanning coupons for faster processing and control.

electronic data interchange (EDI)
The use of telecommunications to exchange business information between companies using standard formats.

electronic data processing (EDP)
The use of computer and other peripheral equipment in all areas of the store and headquarters to assemble, calculate and store information. See buying, ordering; accounting and controls; checkout operations; electronic funds transfer system.

electronic funds transfer (EFT)
The use of telecommunications systems and debit and credit cards to move funds. Paperless system used with credit and debit cards.

electronic mail (e-mail)
An electronic communications system using a computer that enables the user to generate and transmit messages to other locations/addresses via the internet.

electronic marketing
The use of shopper programs to reward frequent customers for their loyalty. Uses a scan card to monitor customer purchases and provide electronic discounts on special products.

electronic shelf labels (ESL)
Liquid crystal display (LCD) shelf tags linked to a backroom computer and POS system that automatically display price changes.

electronic shopping
Digital shopping via the World Wide Web (WWW) on the Internet.

electronic signature capture
A liquid-crystal touch screen that records a signature as a digital image, which reduces paperwork.

end of month (EOM)
An accounting term that designates the last calendar day of a month as the final date for payment of bills.

ends
The last part of whole loaves of meat and cheese in the Deli Department.

EOM
End of month.

ESL
Electronic shelf labels.

estimated inventory
A physical inventory method used to calculate the total cash value of a store's inventory. A product count is multiplied by the retail price. The estimated gross-profit margin is subtracted from that figure to get an estimate of the worth in dollars of items in a store.

ethernet
A local area network (LAN) used to connect computers, in contrast to a network used to connect computers in a larger area, a wide area network (WAN).

ethnic foods
Products that a particular ethnic (racial, national) or cultural group favor, such as Mexican, Chinese or kosher foods.

european article number (EAN)
A European, 13-digit bar code that identifies products and shipping containers, which is compatible with U.S. and Canadian UPCs, although there are differences in format.

event merchandising-event marketing
A store or community wide promotion of targeted products through a series of related activities or using a particular theme.

every day low cost (EDLC)
A manufacturer's pricing strategy in which the cost of goods is consistently low.

every day low price (EDLP)
A retail pricing strategy in which the product prices are kept consistently low. See high-low pricing.

exception count
A physical inventory verification procedure to identify stock conditions outside predetermined limits. These limits generally relate to shelf capacity and back stock, i.e., too much, too little or out-of-stock.

executive information system (EIS)
Computer software used to summarize operational data and prepare executive reports.

exotic produce
Fruits and vegetables not grown in North America and considered 'exotic', such as, kiwi fruit and ugli fruit.

exotic-ethnic sections
Unique products from all over the world. Special sections may feature Asian, Spanish, Italian and other foods or products.

expense
Overhead costs that include salaries, supplies, advertising, depreciation, and maintenance.

expert systems
Software used to interpret data and highlight key events, enabling a category manager to focus on the most relevant problems.

expiration date
A manufacturer's 'sell by' date stamped on products to indicate shelf life.

express lane
A lane used to check out customers with a limited number of items.

extended dating or extended terms
An accounting term that allows longer than usual payments for products.

extenders
Shelves, tables or baskets used along with permanent fixtures to increase display space in a department.

extraordinary items
All infrequent or unusual financial events, including net operating loss carryforwards to the current period.

eye level
A merchandising strategy to increase sales of a product by placing it at a customer's eye level.

face-up
A shelf's-edge arrangement of merchandise to make a display shelf look full.

faced
The pulling forward of product to the edge of the gondola shelf to make the display appear fully stocked. Also known as face-up or facing up.

facings
The number of units in width an item occupies on the front row of a store shelf.

fact sheet
A manufacturer's promotional sheet for sales calls.

factory pack
A standard-sized shipping carton.

failure fee
A manufacturer's payment to retailers for merchandise that does not sell as expected and is being dropped from the retailer's inventory.

fancy foods
Gourmet, specialty, or special-occasion foods.

fat content
The amount of fat in a particular product.

FDA
Food and Drug Administration.

FDI
Food Distributors International.

featured special
A product featured in advertisements.

features
Products featured in a current advertising promotion to attract customers.

FEIF
Food Executives International Foundation.

fermentation
A breakdown in organic compounds caused by a leavening agent, such as the effect of yeast on flour.

FF&D standards
Federal Food & Drug Standards are federal rules that address quality standards of foods and drugs for human consumption.

FICA
Federal Insurance Contributions Act, a mandatory withholding used for Social Security.

field broker
A fruit and vegetable grower's representative who sells and ships produce.

field representative
A manufacturer's or wholesaler's representative who sells products and services accounts. See supervisor.

FIFO
First in, first out.

fill-ins or fill-in order
A supplementary order needed to replace product that was either forgotten, not delivered or out-of-stock.

fillet
A boned, trimmed, lean piece of fish.

final order date
The last date to place an order to receive product allowances.

final ship date
The last date to ship an order to qualify for product allowances.