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Food Marketing Insitute - Glossary of Terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 1740


customer transaction
Payment for merchandise received.

customer unit loads
Unit loads consisting of one or more SKUs, possibly from several product categories, assembled by the seller according to terms of sale offered to the buyer. Also known as rainbow or mixed pallets.

cut
Items that are ordered, but not delivered because the warehouse is out of stock. These items should be re-ordered. Also called a product cut. See scratch.

cut-case
A less-than-case-lot that a wholesaler sells to a retailer.

cut-case display
A method of merchandising and stocking products that uses the original packing case, with the top and/or sides removed, to display products.

cut-in
To make space on a shelf for new or promotional items.

cutthroat
Slashing prices well below the market average.

cutting
Opening or sampling a product to evaluate its appearance, flavor, quality and/or consistency.

cycle cleaning
Cleaning cases, shelves, bins and storage areas on a regular schedule to ensure cleanliness and sanitation.

cycle count
An inventory verification procedure performed at regular intervals at certain store aisles or sections.

cylindrical cheese
Uncut cheese similar in shape to a tube or large water pipe.

daily value (DV)
A list of vitamins, minerals, nutrients, etc., printed on a product label.

dairy products
Milk (including dry milk), cream, sour cream, yogurt, eggs, butter and substitutes such as margarine, cheese, and ice cream.

dairy-deli case extender
An insulated container display attached to a refrigerated case that extends into an aisle to stimulate impulse buys.

damage center
A place where damaged merchandise is sent.

damaged goods
An unsalable product, such as sliced box tops and dented cans.

danger zone
The temperature range, 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit at which foods spoil. Perishable foods should be held at temperatures above or below this temperature range.

dangler
A small, eye-catching sign that hangs from a product or a shelf to draw attention to an item or display.

data mining
A process of searching data bases for unique trends or occurring situations and displaying those trends to the user.

data model
The complete set of data elements which must be taken into account whenever software systems are written. Industry efforts are underway to define a standard data model for retailers.

data warehousing
A compilation of data from a variety of sources for storage and easy retrieval.

data-voice network
A telecommunications system that handles both voice and data transmissions over the same line.

dataviews
An easy-to-read table of data, which measures dollar sales, gross margin, and unit movement.

date code or coding
A 'sell by' date stamped on a product to ensure freshness. The date assists with quality control (first in, first out) and proper rotation. It may also apply to affixing a 'sell by' or 'pull by' date on merchandise which is on display (as in the Bakery Department).

dating
A supplier's offer that provides discounts for payment of an invoice at some future date. The longer the time period the better the arrangement. See extended dating.

day letter
A daily bulletin with current product and pricing information sent to retail stores See bulletin.

days-of-supply (D-O-S)
The amount of product calculated to meet customer demand between replenishments.

DC
Distribution center.

dead net
The lowest cost for goods after all allowances are subtracted, also known as net-net.

dead-heading
Returning an empty vehicle to a warehouse.

deal
A buying arrangement or terms of sale that offer special purchasing incentives; a promotion or a trade deal.

deal pack
A manufacturer's method of packaging products for special customer promotions at a store.

deal period
A manufacturer's time frame for special allowances to retailers for a promotion.

deal sheet
A vendor (DSD supplier) generated information sheet listing current or upcoming products on allowance. Includes product description, UPC codes, allowance, cost, start date and end date for each SKU listed.

deduct-deduction
An amount that is subtracted from a paycheck or an invoice.

deep discount
Lowering the price of merchandise to a minimal markup over the wholesale price.

deep-discount drug store
A low-margin, GM/HBC store with 25,000 SKUs. These stores typically carry fewer sizes, but more GM/HBC brands than a supermarket.

delete
To no longer stock an item in the warehouse or a retail store.

deli product ends
Meat and cheese ends used for sandwiches, salads or samples.

deli-bake
A combination in-store bakery and deli department where equipment, floor space, and labor are shared, usually under common supervision.

delicatessen
An in-store department with cooked foods, salads, cold cuts and cheeses, etc.

delinquent account
Past due customer accounts (accounts receivable).

delivery cycle
The time between an order and its delivery.

delivery receipt
A receipt acknowledging the product count, date and time of a delivery.

demand
The amount of goods that consumers will buy at a specific price.

demand item, demand brand
A product or brand whose consumer popularity makes it an essential item for a store to stock.

demonstration or demo
A product promotion in a store with samples to eat and cooking-tip handouts and/or coupons.

demurrage
A daily rate charged by railroads for failure to unload a rail car within a specified time frame.

depalletize
To remove product from the original shipping pallet and repalletize it for shipping or storage.

department
An area in a retail store designated for a category of products, such as, grocery, meat, produce, bakery, among others.

department flow
A continuous, logical flow from one commodity to another. For example, summertime fruit, to hard fruit, to exotic soft varieties in the display.

department i.d. label
A department's label affixed to a package, so that the sale is credited to that department at the checkout.

department sales report
A daily breakdown of each department's sales.

depreciation
A reduction in a fixed asset's value over time.

descriptive label
The label showing the name of the product, price per pound, total price and possibly the 'sell by' date or 'pull by' date.

detail person
A manufacturer's or broker's representative responsible for category conditions, merchandising and writing credits. See retail representative.

detention
A shipper's fee charged when a truck is not loaded within a certain time frame, which holds up the truck at the warehouse or processing plant.

DEX-UCS (direct exchange)
A telecommunications system between a retailer and supplier that allows for the exchange of sales data, product movement, billings and replenishment needs.

dexter deli express
A free-standing computer used by customers for deli orders.

dial-up communication
A telecommunications link used to exchange data, such as ATM and bankcard authorizations.

diary panel
A sampling technique used to spot consumer trends. Targeted households keep a record of supermarket purchases for a short period of time.

dietetic foods
Low-calorie foods for special diets, such as salt-free, low-sugar, including dietetic soft drinks, organic and health foods.

digital scale
A programmable scale that weighs, calculates cost and prints a label.

direct account
A retailer who buys directly from a manufacturer and receives all manufacturer allowances.

direct buyer
A buyer who places orders directly with a manufacturer and bypasses a wholesaler.

direct expense
An expense that directly relates to a specific segment of the business operation.

direct mailing
Promotional materials for products received by a customer at home.

direct product cost (DPC)
A product's total distribution costs, transportation, handling and advertising.

direct sales force
A group of salespeople employed by a manufacturing company to work exclusively in promoting and selling its own products.

direct store delivery (DSD)
Products delivered directly to a store by the vendor, such as soft drinks, beer, bread and fresh baked goods, dairy products, potato chips and other fragile items.

discontinued item
Product no longer available to a store. See delete.

discount
A predetermined amount, deducted from the face of an invoice, earned for prompt payment. A sales promotion feature that is a markdown from the regular price for a limited time. A percentage deducted for volume purchases.

disk operating system (DOS)
A read-only-memory in a computer's hard drive programmed to perform operations, such as converting keystrokes to bits and bytes, formatting, etc.

dispatch-order processing
A supply center department that coordinates product shipments.

display
A merchandising method of highlighting a product by arranging it in a way that attracts the attention of the customer.

display advertising
Point-of-purchase signage developed to promote product on display.

display allowance
A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer who displays or promotes a product.

display case
A refrigerated or free-standing case for holding products on a sales floor.

display module
A preassembled kit for merchandise display in aisles or shipped on a pallet (generally two to four modules per pallet).

display pack
A case of product packaged in such a way as to be ready immediately to display on the shelf as a unit.

display stock
Products moved from backroom storage to a sales floor.

display unit load
A prebuilt retail display on a pallet ready for in-store merchandising. Also known as Display Pallets.

disposable (personal) income
The measure of what people have available to spend in the marketplace after taxes.

distressed merchandise
Salable merchandise that needs re-working, crisping, re-trimming or to be conditioned or packaged to sell. Product which requires a forced sale because of damage or deterioration. Also known as a distressed item.

distributing area
An analysis of a market area that includes the demographics of the population, number and kind of stores, which is used for price comparisons, market saturation, budgeting, and sales purposes. See trading area.

distribution
A chain of delivery from a manufacturer to a store.

distribution allowance
A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer for purchasing a new product in a category.

distribution center
A warehouse used to receive, store and ship products to retailers.

distribution cost analysis
The accounting method that factors in the cost of handling and storing individual products and product categories.

distributor
A person or company that supplies products to a retailer through a distribution center.

distributors' brand
A private-label, brand product packed for a wholesaler, cooperative or chain.

district manager
See store supervisor.

diversified wholesale grocer
A wholesaler who stocks and sells product in a variety of categories.

diverter
A reseller that buys 'deal' product from manufacturers to re-sell outside of a target market area.

dock
An area to receive, load and unload shipments.

dock plate
A built-in or free-standing metal plate that forms a bridge between a trailer and a loading dock.

dollar margin
See gross margin.

dolly
A small hand-cart with two wheels used to move heavy objects.

domestics
Soft goods, such as kitchen items, linens and other household textiles.

DOS
Disk operating system.