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Food Marketing Insitute - Glossary of Terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 13/09/2007, USA
Words: 1740


case weight
The total weight of a case, a product and its packaging.

case wrap-arounds
A decorative wrap around the base of a merchandising display. Also called base wrap.

case, refrigerated
A refrigerated display unit for perishable products, such as dairy products or ice cream.

cases selected
Includes only hard cases, that is, no repacks.

cash discount
A percentage allowance deducted from an invoice under certain conditions, such as, two percent off the invoice if a customer pays the bill within ten days of receiving it.

cash flow
The increase or decrease of cash resources, permitting money to be available for working capital, investments, and other expenses.

cash handling
All operations that involve taking in or sending out money. Includes bonding employees; cash controls; coin shortages; making change at the checkout; forms; store deposits for banks. See accounting and controls; checkout operations; pilferage, security (cash protection).

cash store
A retailer who sells goods for cash only.

cash wholesale grocer
A wholesaler that sells to retailers for cash on deliveries or when the wholesaler allows credit on only one bill at a time.

cash-and-carry
A policy that requires a wholesaler or retailer to pay cash upon delivery.

cash-and-carry wholesale grocer
A wholesaler that allows retailers to select, pay cash and transport their own orders.

cashier
See checker.

cashier's check
See check, cashier's.

catalog
A booklet of products, price lists and UPC codes used for electronic ordering. See preprint order form.

category
A group of similar products; such as detergents, paper goods, etc.

category captain
Within a category, the manufacturer's representative responsible for analyzing the product movement, assortment, inventory levels, promotion, buying and profitability for a specific geographic area or an entire chain.

category development index (CDI)
A trend analysis that indicates the pace of sales of a product category in an area.

category killer
A retailer, such as a mass merchandiser or a pet food superstore, able to undercut prices of most competitors because of high-volume sales.

category manager (CM)
A person who analyzes product brands and mix, inventory levels, movement, shelf space allocation, promotions, buying, and profitability of a merchandise category.

category pricing
A pricing policy that is used to determine the retail price for all products in a category.

cats & dogs
Slow-moving products with few turns on the shelf.

CBT
Computer-based training.

CD-ROM
Computer disk, read-only-memory. A disk that stores bits, bytes and multimedia.

CDI
Category development index.

ceiling cost
A manufacturer's or supplier's limits to price increases on an item.

central billing
A headquarters accounting department that processes invoices.

central buying
A company headquarters' purchasing department.

centralized prepackaging
A central facility that processes prepackaged perishables and ships the goods to stores.

cents-off
A manufacturer's practice of printing a cents-off coupon on a product label to boost sales for that product.

cents-off coupon
A certificate that provides for a cash refund or is deducted from the purchase price at the register.

certification sheet
A listing of on-hand inventory amounts signed by a manager and turned in at inventory time.

certified check
See check, certified.

CFC
Chlorofluorocarbon.

chain
A multi-unit retail operation with stores managed by a headquarters staff. Usually refers to a group of supermarkets under common ownership.

chain store
A retail operation of a group of 11 or more stores, which operate under a similar name under one corporate ownership.

change agent
Groups or individuals who use their skills and relationships to lead and implement change in an organization.

channel of distribution
The producers and distributors of products from a farm to the table, a path that includes a grower, producer, manufacturer, broker, wholesaler, store and a consumer.

chargeback
A manufacturer's bill to a retailer if the retailer fails to meet stated performance requirements.

check approval
A manager's approval for a customer's check.

check drawer
A drawer under a cash register that holds customers' checks.

check verification
A store's electronic system that automatically verifies customers' checks.

check-in
Receiving, checking and signing for merchandise delivered.

check, cashier's
A check drawn on the issuing bank; required when purchasing from a company or store that does not accept personal or company checks.

check, certified
A check which is guaranteed by the bank issuing the check.

check, post-dated
A check dated later than the date on which it was written.

checker
A front end employee who rings up, totals and collects for a customer's order. Also known as a cashier.

checker accountability
A process of verifying a till's accuracy, before and after a checker's shift.

checking
The process of recording customer purchases, taking payment, making change, processing coupons, bagging and all other functions inherent to the front end operation.

checkout operations
Front-end operations, including the selection and training of checkers and baggers; parcel pickup and carryout services; front end scheduling; productivity; checkout equipment, including grocery bags, shopping carts, etc.; the universal product code, scanning and the electronic checkout; mandatory item pricing. See cash handling; electronic data processing; electronic funds transfer; food stamps.

checkout or checkstand
A fixture in a supermarket where customer transactions occur and where the register, scanner, and bags are located. Also known as the front end.

checkout rack
A rack in or near a checkout lane that displays high-impulse-buy merchandise, such as candy, gum, razor blades, cigarettes and magazines.

cheese rinds
The exterior covering (wax coating, for example) on uncut cheese.

cherry picker
A customer who shops at several supermarkets to find low-priced specials and promotions.

chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A refrigerant chemical that the federal government has banned, which must be phased out of use by 2000.

circular
An advertisement that looks like a newspaper ad distributed to homes. Also called a handbill or a flier.

class of trade
A retail organization classed according to its method of doing business, such as a convenience store, supermarket, superstore, or a warehouse membership club.

classifications
The family groups of products that a retail food store displays and sells.

clearinghouse
A company that redeems consumer coupons from retailers and sends them to manufacturers for reimbursement.

client-server environment
A network of computers; client refers to the desktop terminal; the server to the central processing unit (CPU).

clipstrip
A display piece suspended from a gondola shelf, used to cross-merchandise small items.

close of business (COB)
The last hour of a business day, or the last day of a week, month or year that business is conducted.

closed coded
An expiration date on a product that a consumer cannot read.

club store
A large retail store, (100,000 square feet or more), that sells only to members who pay an annual membership fee. Also referred to as a membership club store, warehouse club store or wholesale club.

cluster marketing
A strategy to market products in stores with similar demographics.

CM
Category manager.

CMA
Calendar marketing agreement.

CMI
Can Manufacturers Institute.

co-branded credit cards
A credit card issued by a retailer and a credit card company.

co-marketing
A joint effort between a retailer and a manufacturer to promote products.

co-packer
A packing company for several different manufacturers that uses manufacturer-supplied products and packaging and charges manufacturers per-unit.

co-sponsoring
Two or more advertisers that share the costs of advertising on a television program.

COB
Close of business.

COD
Cash on delivery.

code date or dating
A date and source code printed on an item to indicate its shelf life. Date codes simplify rotation and help prevent the sale of off-quality or spoiled products. See pull date.

code number
An item number printed on a case or package by the manufacturer to indicate confidential information for pack identification or checking purposes. Accounts may use different code numbers to describe the same item.

COFC
Container on a flat car.

coffin case or coffin freezer
A waist-high fixture used to display frozen food, with a transparent door or no door for easy access. See upright freezer.

COGS
Cost of goods sold.

cold spot
An in-store bakery department that features baked goods furnished by an outside supplier or the supermarket's central bakery plant. No baking is done in the store. A cold spot department may have service or self-service cases and typically sells both unpackaged and prepackaged products.

cold storage
A facility that stores frozen foods and perishable items that need refrigeration or special handling.

collateral
An asset used to secure a loan.

collateral material
Point-of-purchase and merchandising materials that support special sales efforts, such as seasonal or holiday promotions or a new product introduction.

collection
A process of collecting monies owed.

collection letter
A business letter requesting that a customer pay an overdue bill for products or services received.

color break
The use of contrasting colors of products to create an eye-catching display.

column inch
A newspaper measurement unit, one inch long and one column wide. Ad prices are multiplied by column inches.

combination deal
A trade deal including at least two manufacturer's allowances, such as an advertising allowance and a purchasing allowance.

combination feature
Multiple products offered together at a single unit price.

combination rate
A media term for a special rate offered to companies that advertise in two or more publications, radio or television stations owned by the same company.

combination salesperson
An employee of a broker or a manufacturer who has both wholesale and retail sales responsibilities.

combination store
A food store and drugstore under one roof.

combo store
A complete, full-line self-service market at least 30,000 square feet or larger with annual sales of at least 10 million dollars, 40 percent of which is non foods.

commissary
A U.S. government-subsidized, nonprofit food store, operating on a military base. Operates on a non-profit basis and sells products at cost plus a small markup. Also, a centralized food preparation facility which distributes prepared product to stores within an area, ready for sale in in-store bakeries, delis and food service operations.

commission
Compensation paid to a person or company for selling goods or services.

commission merchant (receiver)
A warehouse operator that sells goods, primarily fresh fruits and vegetables and job-lots of groceries, on consignment for the owner. See consignment selling.

commissioned representative
A salesperson who represents a grower, manufacturer or packer and sells goods on commission and does not warehouse, deliver or bill for products sold. See broker.

commodities
Staple agricultural products. Basic raw materials used to make processed foods.

commodity number
See code number.

common carrier
A transportation company, such as a rail line or trucking firm. See carrier.

compactor, trash
A device used to crush dry or wet garbage. Often found in many stores in two separate units-one compactor for paper and cardboard and one for all other materials.