Copy of `Emily Compost - Garden Glossary`

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Emily Compost - Garden Glossary
Category: Animals and Nature > Gardening
Date & country: 11/09/2007, USA
Words: 484


Open Pollinated
Any plant that has been pollinated in the field. In direct contrast to hybrid varieties that will grow true to variety the plants produced will be true to the parents.

Organic
Fertilizers and chemicals that have been obtained from a source which is or has been alive. Also the general term used for a type of gardening using no chemical or synthetic fertilizers or pesticides.

Ornamental
A plant that is grown strictly for its foliage or flower rather than for food or any other economic use (i.e. saucer magnolia.)

Over Potting
Repotting a plant into a pot which is too large to allow successful establishment. The roots may die from too much moisture.

Overseeding
Planting on top of an existing garden or lawn. Rye grass over lawns for winter. Wildflower seed in meadows.

Palmate Leaf
Five or more lobes arising from one point

Parasite
Any plant that grows upon another. It steals its moisture and nourishment from its host. Mistletoe is a good example.

Parterre
Symmetry at its best. These are great ornamental garden beds that have been geometrically designed and separated by walkways. The gardens are most appreciated by an above view. One of the most famous being the gardens of Versailles.

Passalong Plants
Plants that are shared between friends and not easily found in catalogs. Usually some plant from an older garden.

Pea Gravel
Gravel about the size of a pea. Used a lot in driveways and walkways.

Peat
The preserved and compressed remains of dead bog plants. Often known as peat moss because it is from sphagnum or sedge peat.

Peat Pot
Compressed peat into a pot that can be used for starting seeds. When planting times comes this entire pot can be put in the ground and the roots will grow through the pot as it decomposes.

Pebble Tray
A tray filled with pebbles to create humidity in the environment. Continual evaporation will take place up and around the plants.

Pegging Down
A very effective way to increase flower production on Bonbon & Hybrid Perpetual roses that send up long shoots with oily flowers on the end. It is a time consuming method but well worth the display. This is generally done in the fall. Instead of pruning, spread the runners and fasten to the soil with wire loops. Basically you are training the plant horizontally.

Pelleted Seeds
Seeds that have been coated with an inert material just to make the handling of the seed easier.

Perennial
A plant which will live for three years or more under normal conditions.

Perfoliate
Paired leaves which fuse around the stem.

Pergola
Sometimes called an arbor, or walkway covered with trellis work. Usually climbing plants will cover the hardscape feature.

Perlite
Granular volcanic rock, used to improve the aeration in potting soil. No nutrient value.

Permaculture
A very advanced system of trying to grow and provide food by using perennial plants instead of the annuals the agriculture world uses now for most of our food.

Petal
One of the divisions of the corolla

Ph
The scale where the acidity and alkalinity of soil is measured. It starts at '1' for acid and goes to '14' for alkali. Most gardens will fall between 5.5

Photoperiodism
The response of plants to the length of a day and night (i.e. poinsettias, cactus, night blooming flowers)

Pinch Out
Pinching with the fingers to remove the tip of a growing shoot to encourage lateral growth.

Pioneer Plants
The very first species to grow of the soil has had a traumatic occurrence, like a fire, flood, earthquake. The first plants to take over when a farmstead has been abandoned.

Pip
Used in propagation. The side offshoot of a rootstock. A good example is lily of the valley.

Plant Lice
This is a reference to aphids found in British publications.

Plant Patent Numbers
This generally is a catalog referral phrase. For the general gardener it may not be important but new plants, like inventions, can also be patented. This is a protection for the owner who created the 'new' plant.

Plantlet
A small plant off the original plant. A good example is the piggy back plant these will easily root. Used in propagation.

Pleaching
a popular technique of training and pruning shrubs and trees into a wall. Very popular in Europe.

Plug
A small but well-rooted seedling raised in a cellular tray for covering large areas as in ground covers or lawns.

Pocket Garden
A small growing area planted with miniature and dwarf varieties.

Pollen
The yellow dust produced by the anthers. The male element which fertilized the ovule.

Pollinator
Who are these wonderful creatures that make our world grow? People, bees, moths, butterflies, bats, and any insect that hops from plant to plant.

Pot Bound
A plant growing in a pot which is too small to allow proper leaf and stem growth. Roots will start to grow in a circle in the pot.

Potager
Giving credit to the French who inspired this vegetable garden. It is planted in a formal and ornamental style.

Potpourri
A mixture of sweet smelling leaves, petals, blooms to create a perfume in a room. Tussie

Potting Up
Taking the young seedlings or transplants into a specific container for mature growth.

Prairie Gardening
Specifically creating a garden of plants from the Midwestern states of the U.S. Most associated with the designer Jens Jensen.

Pre-Emergent Weed Killer
A great idea is good gardening. Although not organic, this is using a herbicide to kill the weed seeds to prevent them from germinating.

Pressure Treated Lumber
Lumber that has been treated with chemicals to prevent rotting.

Propagation
For gardening methods, this refers to the many different ways of starting new plants.

Pruning
The cutting off leaves or branches within limits in order to remove dead or diseased foliage or branches. Also used to control or direct growth, increase quality or yield of flowers or fruit, and to ensure growth position of main branches to enhance structural strength.

Radicums
These plants are special in that their stems have roots that will cling as they grow vertically or grow over the ground. Ivy is a good example.

Raised Bed
Any ornamental or vegetable bed that has soil higher than the surrounding immediate area. Sometimes it is bordered by boards, stone, brick or any material to hold in the soil. Created to make a supreme growing area.

Re-Seeding
Plants that drop their seeds for next season. Called 'easily re-seeders'. Wildflowers and weeds are the biggest categories.

Reed
Tall grasses that grow in shallow water.

Remontant
Repeat bloomer. Plants that will bloom more than once a year. Tea, olive, daylilies, or bottle bush.

Resting Period
mostly in terms of bulbs, it is a period of dormancy where energy is restored to the plant.

Retaining Wall
A wall that has been built on a slope to keep the soil from sliding or eroding. It would stabilize the area.

Revert
Sometimes a particular cultivar might change back to one of its original species. I.e. Variegation going to solid green, some doubles going to single.

Rhizome
A thickened stem which grows horizontally below or on the soil surface, as in iris rhizomes.

Rock Garden
An area constructed of larger rocks arranged to look natural. Planted with plants that generally do not need a lot of care.

Rockwool
This really is the state of the art rooting medium, and is used in plant propagation. It is alkaline and one will have to compensate for this.

Root Ball
Matted roots plus enclosed soil within the pot of a container grown plant or when plant material is transplanted.

Root Crops
Any vegetable that the roots are edible: i.e. carrots, potatoes, turnips.

Root Cutting
the root is used for propagation. Plants that grow away from the mother plant and root, can be dub up and transplanted.

Root Pruning
This is done in two instances. One when repotting from one pot to another, roots that have grown in a circle are trimmed to promote future growth. Also, when planting into the garden or landscape, a plant that needs root trimming.

Root Rot
Quite common in plants that are effected by fungus diseases and have poor drainage.

Root Zone
The entire area where roots are growing below the plant. Root zones are important for walking paths and future plantings.

Root-Bound
Often, when plants are left too long in their container, the roots become entangled and begin to grow in circles. There is hope by separating the roots the plants will survive when planted.

Rooting Hormone
A chemical in powder or liquid form which promotes the formation of roots at the base of a cutting. Contains hormones and anti-fungus growth prohibitors.

Rootstock
The roots and stems arise from this part of the plant.

Rosarian
Those hobbyists or professionals who specialize in the cultivation of roses.

Rotation
Specifically towards crop rotation: changing the plants in the same growing area. This will decrease the soil born diseased.

Rotenone
Material used a lot by organic gardeners. It is derived from the roots of tropical legumes. It does break down in sunlight and the side effect is that it is toxic to good and bad insects.

Row Covers
Any type of semitransparent materials used to cover plants, trap heat, enhance growth, and provide protection from frost or winds. Commercial growers sometimes use this method.

Run
A plant that runs will be growing rapidly underground. Great for ground cover but some plants take over an area by running.

Runner
A creeping stem which produces small plantlets along its length. Sometimes called a 'stolen'.

Runoff
When liquids (such as in watering an area of ground or a fast rain) washes off quickly a run off is created. Often pesticides and fertilizers are washed into waterways from lawn and garden runoff.

Salt Marsh Hay
probably a better mulch that is collected from the grasses grown in coastal marshes. It generally does not contain weed seeds and is fluffy.

Sap
the fluid in plants . Most know is the collecting of maple sap made into syrup.

Sapling
A very young tree.

Scald
When plants have an overexposure to sunlight a discoloration will develop. Often when plants do not become acclimated slowly into a sunny location from being indoors or from the shade.

Scale
Sucking insects. Usually more prevalent in milder climates. Not to be taken lightly, and need to be treated.

Scape
a leafless flower stem that will grow directly from the base of the stem. Very common in bulbs.

Scarify
to scratch or break the hard coat of some seeds, so they will germinate easily. Fine sandpaper or just soaking the seed will do the trick.

Scientific Name
The internationally recognized Latin name of a plant that will be descriptive of the feature of the plant, or will commemorate a person connected with it. The name of the species will consist of two parts, the genus name and the species name. This system was first started in 1753 by a Swedish botanist, Linnaeus.

Scion
A suitable piece that is a desirable specimen of a woody plant, used in grafting.

Scooping (De-Eyeing)
A technique that is used to produce a shorter and bushier plant by scraping out the center eye of the bulb.

Seedhead
Dried, inedible fruit that contains seeds.

Self Pollination
The transfer of pollen from one flower to another flower on the same plant.

Self-Seeded, Or Self Sowing
A plant's habit of shedding seeds in the immediate area. They will then germinate without outside help. Many annuals use self seeding (i.e. cleome-marigolds).

Semi-Evergreen
Those shrubs that will keep some of their green foliage usually in mild climates.

Set
In reference to shallot bulbs and small onions, as in sets of onions.

Sharp Sand
Ah, also called builders sand. This sand is rough. Great for drainage, and propagation, not to mention starting of seeds.

Shear
A method of pruning in the landscape. Often in reference to hedges.

Sheet Composting
A method of piling un-decomposed organic materials over the soil and waiting for decomposition. At times working it in the soil.

Shrub
A woody plant with a framework of branches and little or no central stem. Compare to tree.

Side Dress
When one fertilizes above the ground without working it in. Placing the fertilizer on the side of the plant material. Sometime side dressing is used to encourage growth during the season.

Sieve
A garden sieve is a frame with a mesh bottom. Mainly used for separating compost, but sometimes used in very stony gardens. Home made ones made out of two by fours, 2' x 2' with a 1/2 inch hardcloth bottom is most handy.

Slip
An older fern once used for a cutting. Slips are taken for propagation.

Slow Release Fertilizer
Generally a natural fertilizer that over a period of time will release its nutrients. Always a good practice to use.

Soaker Hose
Hoses that have hundreds of mini holes to let the water out slowly and can be left on for a long period of time. Great for vegetable gardens and beds that need to be watered frequently.

Soil Amendment
Anything added to the soil to improve the present situation, i.e. drainage, nutrients, or makeup.

Soil Less Gardening
Another name for hydroponics. Gardening in something other than soil or water and rocks.

Soil Less Mix
This would be any medium for containers. The substances would be like peat moss, perlite, vermiculite, or materials like sand or bark. However, fertilizing is a must since none of these have any real nutrient quality.

Soil Polymers
Super absorbent polymers that have been around for a while, that can be added to retain moisture containers. It will absorb many times over its weight in water. Use sparingly.

Solarization
The process by which one can sterilize the soil by the sun. Cultivate the area to be isolated, water well, and then cover with 2

Soluble Fertilizer
A fertilizer that is mixed with water and used not only for root fertilizing but can also be sprayed on the foliage. A common practice for houseplants but gardeners can use the practice in their landscape too.