Copy of `Emily Compost - Garden Glossary`

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Emily Compost - Garden Glossary
Category: Animals and Nature > Gardening
Date & country: 11/09/2007, USA
Words: 484


Haha
No, we are not starting a comedy club, but in the 18th and 19th century the dry moat or ditch around the English Manor house was created to keep animals from roaming too close.

Half-Hardy
Just as the word depicts, not completely hardy. Good examples re pansies, snapdragons, sweet alyssum. They will tolerate some light frost and cold nights.

Halophyte
Those plants that will tolerate salt in the soil. Mostly coastal plants in the dunes, or marshes.

Hardening Off
Gradual acclimatization to colder conditions. Usually used when taking seedlings out of the greenhouse or moving outside to a cold frame or protected area.

Hardiness
When a plant has the ability to withstand low temperatures or frost.

Hardiness Zones
This was created by the US Department of Agriculture. The zones are divided into 11 zones. Based on the average minimum temperature in the winter. It is important to note that this has all been revised and good to recheck. Easily found in many books and catalogs. If a plant is recommended for zone four it will grow in tht zone and those higher.

Hardpan
Compacted soil, sometimes new, created by construction. Water will run off and plant roots can not penetrate the layer. Can be broken up.

Hardscape
Includes any garden feature that is not a plant. Like birdbaths, deck, fences, trellises, benches, and patios.

Hay
Stems of grass. Most popular feed for horses and cattle, however gardeners are always looking for 'spoiled hay' or 'mulch hay'. This is hay that has rotted or gotten moldy. It is great for compost piles and using as a mulch. Beware of weed seeds and compost well.

Heading Back
The process of cutting an older branch or stem to a twig or stub.

Heart Rot
most commonly heard of in reference to trees. The center merely has rotted out. Can also happen in root vegetables.

Heaving
When there is a climate change from frost to warming of the soil, it often causes the soil to buckle upward. Sometimes called frost heaves.

Hedge
Suitable trees, shrubs, or bushes planted relatively close together so that the branches will intertwine to provide a barrier fence for a windbreaker or privacy. Hedges can be any height or width depending on the plant material used. Generally they are long lived species.

Hedge Row
Just as it reads

Heel Cutting
A short, side branch taken as a cutting with a small piece of the main stem. (Often taken with old rose cuttings.)

Heeling-In
This is a temporary planting procedure until a plant can be put in its permanent place. The plant will benefit from the soil temperature.

Heirloom Plant
Plants that have been around for 50 years or more. Not all people will consider the same plant an heirloom.

Herb
A plant grown for its medicinal or flavoring qualities, or its scented foliage.

Herbaceous
A plant with a non-woody stem. The upper parts will die back at the end of the growing season. It generally refers to perennials. Gertrude Jekyll invented the term.

Herbaceous Border
Probably more known in ferns with Gertrude Jekyll as she created great colorful perennial boarders in contrast to previous Victorian annuals in their showy and symmetrical beds. Of great interest and diversity.

Herbarium
A collection of dried specimens and a research center. It is a special kind of museum.

Herbicide
As much as I hate the use of this word and anything connected to it, it is any chemical that will kill a plant. There are both selective and non-selective herbicides. Selectives only killing a specific plant and the non-selective killing a larger segment of plants.

High Shade
Always a difficult gauge but generally it is the shade beneath trees that have been 'limbed up' or pruned to get some light in.

Hill Up
It sounds like an old fashion term but means to pull the soil around the stem of a plant for support.

Honey Dew
The sweet and sticky syrup secreted by aphids and other sap-sucking insects. It then sometimes gets moldy fungus on it. Should be washed off with a soapy water rinse.

Horticultural Oil
This includes both a dormant oil and a summer oil

Horticulture
The art and science of gardening. Commercial horticulture would include fruit, flower and small scale vegetable growing including the nursery industry. Agriculture covers broad acre farming of plants.

Hortus
This plant dictionary was originally created by Liberty Hyde Bailey in 1930. Plants that were and are cultivated in the U.S. and Canada. It has been rewritten by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hororium at Cornell University. It is definably a reference book to have on your shelf.

Host
Any plant material that will support a parasite. Oak trees will host mistletoe that will create damage and oaks can also host Spanish moss that does no harm.

Hot Cap
Cones that are used a lot in cooler zones to protect newly planted seedlings from cold weather and birds. Usually made of plastic or a very heavy translucent waxed paper.

Hot House
Another term for a greenhouse sometimes found in earlier garden writings.

House Plants
Plants that are grown in containers inside the home.

Humus
This is the organic residue of decayed vegetable in the soil (i.e. leaf mold or compost.)

Hybrid
The offspring of two different varieties or species. The pollen of one variety pollinates the variety of another. A new plant is created.

Hydroponics
A method of growing a plant in water containing dilute nutrients. Many vegetables are commercially grown this way. Epcot center has a wonderful hydroponics center.

Hyperturfa
Lately this has become very popular. A replica lightweight rock material created by equal amounts of dry cement, sand, perlite, peat moss, and water. This is made into troughs, planters, and rock all in the manner of looking old.

Ikebana
The formal flower arranging done by the Japanese. Special attention and thought to balance, harmony, and form.

Indeterminate
Being able to grow for an indefinite period of time (i.e. many tomatoes.)

Indigenous
Plant species that are native to that region. These plants are believed to be growing in the wild at least for the span of human history.

Infertile
Soil that has no nutrients.

Inflorescence
The arrangement of flowers on the stem. Basically, a flower head.

Inorganic
A chemical or fertilizer which is not obtained from a source which is or has been alive.

Insecticidal Soap
A great alternative to using chemicals on plants. It may not be the total answer to getting rid of insects but certainly should be tried first. A homemade version is two tbsp. to a gallon of water. Several application may have to be used.

Insecticide
A synthetic or organic chemical used to kill or repel insects. Please use as directed on the label.

Insectivorous Plant
Another term for carnivorous plants. Plants that will trap and digest insects that will supply them with nitrogen. Most of these plants grow in swamps where it is difficult to obtain nitrogen.

Insitu
The act of sowing seeds or cuttings in the ground where they are to grow.

Intercropping Or Interplanting
A smart way to garen. Mixing two or more plants, tall and short, for foliage difference, or combining plants that bloom at different times of the year. It keeps the interest in the garden.

Invasive
The ability of a plant to spread quickly and will crowd out other plantings Great for a ground cover but dangerous for a well kept, under control garden bed.

Ipm
Integrated Pest Management. A method by which gardeners can learn to manage and eradicate pests by choosing appropriate plants providing good growing conditions and minimizing pests rather than annihilating them.

Iron Chelate
This is often recommended when plants are showing signs of chlorosis. It is a form of iron, being readily absorbed by plants, especially in alkaline soils.

Japanese Beetle
If there is one bug a gardener should know it is the Japanese beetle. Its larvae in the soil is known as the white grub that will eat the roots of your grassy lawn. When the beetle appears it eats its way through plants especially roses and leaves them like skeleton forms.

Japanese Gardens
Gardens that are designed with a Japanese cultural influence. Using particular plants for the design. Often with a Zen influences. Bamboo, pine, mondo grasses, koi are often used.

Kernel
The edible part of nut.

Knot Garden
A very carefully planned garden of small dwarf shrubs or even herbs. Planned in a pattern and kept in order by constant pruning and trimming.

Lacewing
Think beneficial. About one inch in length will eat mites, aphids, and thrip.

Landscape Architect
A very good professional to consider when creating a garden. They are licensed by the state and know the mechanics of major construction, grading, drainage, and will advice solutions to problems.

Landscape Fabric
Probably one of your best solutions against weeds for beds. This can be a variety of materials: newspaper, plastic, porous fibers, burlap. It provides a barrier for weeds to germinate. This is then dressed with mulch of any kind.

Lath
A structure used to create shade. Made of any material, evenly spaced to let in some light.

Layering
A way to propagate plant material. A branch is anchored to the ground (still attached to the parent plant). Roots appear creating another plant.

Leaching
A process which can rid soils of bad substances, like salts.

Leader
The main growing shoot of a sapling, it eventually will become the trunk of the tree.

Leaf Cutting
A method of propagation. A leaf is removed and is placed in vermiculite or perlite for future baby plants.

Leaf Mold
Partially decayed leaves used in some potting mixtures. It must be sieved and sterilized before use. Great for outdoor use in beds.

Leaf Roller
Different moths that will roll leaves when larvae. Cannas often get a lot of leaf rollers.

Leaflet
A leaf-like section of a compound leaf. Small in stature.

Leggy
This is tall and spindly growth, not usual to the growth habit of the plant. It is seen because of the lack of light.

Legume
A plant whose roots form an association with soil borne bacteria that can capture atmospheric nitrogen. A good example of this are soybeans.

Lichen
A combined growing condition of algae and fungus. It looks crusty, and comes in many colors: gray, green, bluish, or browns.

Limbing Up
Pruning off the lower limbs of trees, usually for ease of walking underneath or admitting sunlight.

Lithophyte
Plants that grow on rocks or other areas that do not need soil. They will receive their nourishment from the air. i.e. orchids and lichens.

Loam
Good quality soil. Adequate supplies of clay, sand, and fiber must be present. Crumbly to the touch. Ideal for most gardening.

Manure
Any animal droppings with a high content of nitrogen, these should be composted and aged before use. Take special note not to use cat or dog droppings. All to often these contain disease organisms.

Manure Tea
A liquid fertilizer made by mixing manures with water and filtering out. Pillow cases filled with cow or horse patooties and dunked in a pail of water.

Marginal Plant
Plants that will grow on the edges of ponds or lakes and when cultivated will make nice plants around a water garden (i.e. iris).

Mass Planting
The planting of one particular flower or many of the same kind somewhat close together to create a dramatic 'look'.

Master Gardener
County residents who volunteer and are trained to work with the extension service. (see article).

Micro Propagation
Also called propagating by tissue culture. Taking cell slices of plant material and starting growth on culture dishes.

Microclimate
A physical area with a set of conditions different from those surrounding the area.

Micronutrients
These are the very important nutrients that plants need for proper growth. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and from the soil they will acquire nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus and in smaller quantities calcium, sulfur, and magnesium.

Microorganisms
Animals and plants that are too small to be seen clearly with the naked eye but are the soil enablers helping to improve the dirt.

Mildew
Several different types of fungi. Two popular types are downy and powdery. It leaves a white coating on the leaves. Common to crepe myrtle, zinnias, grapes, and roses

Mist Propagation
The ideal method of propagation in a green house or place with good circulation, using automatic misters.

Mixed Border
Some of this, some of that in a border. Shrubs and woody plants that are still in the bed when the annuals and perennials are gone for the season.

Moist But Not Wet
Plants that grow well in moist conditions but not entirely wet. Whether it be in the ground or in a container.

Monoecious
A plant which bears both male and female flowers. (Compare to Dioecious)

Moon Gardening
A very romantic night garden created by using white night flowering plants or light variegated leaf varieties of plants. Really a pretty effect.

Mowing Strip
Sometimes known as an edging strip. The six to eight inches of space between the lawn and the flower or vegetable bed. The flat area decoratively made with cement or brick.

Mulch
Any loose, usually organic material (can be small pebbles) over the soil as a protective covering or for decorative purposes. Common mulches are ground bark, saw dust, leaves, pine straw or eucalyptus.

Mutation
Any change in a plant which will lead to a new feature. Fortunately or unfortunately, this can be inherited.

Native
This refers to a plant that grows in the same habitat in which they originated. These plants can be native to a continent, state, or region.

Naturalized
Plants that will behave like native plants in a given geological region. Bulbs naturalize nicely and lend themselves to a blooming statement.

Nectar
A sugar and water substance secreted by flowers, this will attract pollinators like bees and hummingbirds searching for food.

Neem
A botanical insecticide that is nontoxic. It is derived from the neem tree (azaderachta indica).

Nematode
A microscopic roundworm that lives in the soil. There are both harmful and beneficial nematodes. Harmful ones take their toll on the roots of a plant.

Neutral
This is neither acid nor alkaline; pH 6.5

New Wood
A term often used in reference to propagation. That part of the stems and branches that have grown during the current season. Some plants will propagate better on new wood as opposed to old wood (previous season's growth.)

Node
The point on a stem where a leaf or bud is attached; the place for which propagation is used.

Node Anchoring
Node anchoring or node cuttings are when you take a cutting of a stem right below a node. This is a better method of getting success than taking a cut just anywhere on the stem. It is mentioned for the Persian Shield because the success rate for stem cuttings for the Persian Shield is not that great and cutting right below the node gives it a better chance.

Nurseryman
One who is state certified to practice growing techniques of plant material making the proper selection for specific needs.

Offset
A young plantlet which appears on a mature plant. An offset can generally be detached and used for propagation as in spider plants or walking iris.