Copy of `CAHE - Agriculture Glossary`

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CAHE - Agriculture Glossary
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Agriculture
Date & country: 11/09/2007, USA
Words: 118


acequia
An irrigation ditch or canal.

acre-foot
The volume of water that would cover one acre to a depth of one foot.

ADG
Average daily gain. The amount of body weight gain in a day.

agribusiness
Producers and manufacturers of agricultural goods and services, such as fertilizer and farm equipment makers, food and fiber processors, wholesalers, transporters, and retail food and fiber outlets.

AI
Artificial insemination. Impregnating an animal through artificial means, not through natural breeding.

annual
Any plant which completes its entire life cycles and dies within one year or less.

aquifer
A stratum of earth or permeable rock that stores significant quantities of water.

AUM Animal Unit Month.
The amount of forage required by a mature cow (or other grazing animal) and her calf for one month.

barrow
A male pig castrated before reaching sexual maturity.

BFP
Basic formula price, determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that serves as a basis for pricing milk in the United States. The BFP is calculated monthly based on previous BFP and the price of cheese.

biological control
Controlling plants, diseases, and animal pests using natural enemies; or inhibiting the reproduction of pests by methods that result in the laying of infertile eggs, etc.

biological diversity
Richness and abundance of species, and variety of natural communities. Both the number of species and the number of individuals within each species are important in considering the extent of biological diversity in an area. Also referred to as biodiversity.

boar
A sexually mature male hog.

breeding stock
Sexually mature male and female livestock that are retained to produce offspring. browse (forestry, wildlife science) Leaves, buds, and woody stems used as food by deer and other animals.

brush
Commonly refers to undesirable shrubs and small trees.

BST
Bovine somatotropin, commonly referred to as growth hormone. Produced naturally by the cow, stimulates metabolic functions related to growth and milk production.

bull
An uncastrated male bovine.

calf crop
The number or percentage of calves produced in a herd within a given year relative to the number of cows and heifers exposed to breeding.

canopy
The uppermost layer in a forest, formed collectively by tree crowns.

chisel
A farm implement used to break through and shatter compacted or otherwise impermeable layers of soil.

class 1 milk
Milk that is used for fluid use.

clearcut harvest
A harvest and regeneration technique removing all the trees (regardless of size) on an area. Clearcutting is commonly used with shade-intolerant species such as Douglas fir or lodgepole pine, which require full sunlight to reproduce and grow well. Clearcutting produces an even-aged stand of trees.

combine
A self-propelled or tractor-drawn machine which cuts, threshes, and cleans the standing crop which moving across the field. It is adapted to harvesting all the small grains, soybeans, grain sorghums, peanuts, beans, etc. In some areas, the crop is cut and placed in windrows by a swather (windrower), and a combine with a pickup attachment gathers the grain and threshes it at a later date.

contour farming
Field operations such as plowing, planting, cultivating, and harvesting on the contour, or at right angles to the natural slope to reduce soil erosion, protect soil fertility, and use water more efficiently.

cord
A stack of wood that has a gross volume of 128 cubic feet. A standard cord measures 4 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet.

cover
Vegetation or other natural shelter serving to conceal wildlife from predators.

crossbreeding
The mating of animals of different breeds. For example, breeding a Hereford cow with an Angus bull.

cull
To select inferior animals from the herd for potential sale.

cultivar
The name officially given for all cultivated varieties of plants.

cultivator
A machine used to till the upper portion of the soil, primarily used to destroy weeds or form a moisture retaining mulch.

deciduous tree
A tree that loses its leaves or needles during the fall and winter.

DHIA
Dairy Herd Improvement Association. A nationwide system of performance testing and records processing for dairy producers.

disk
An tractor-drawn implement composed of circular plates arranged at an angle with the soil. Used to prepare the soil for seeding.

ditch rider
Manages water for an irrigation district. This person is responsible for delivering water through ditches to farmers for irrigation.

dormant - dormancy
A biological process in which a plant ceases most growth activities and simply maintains existing tissue.

dowsing
Using a forked stick or wire to locate underground water.

drill
A farm implement for planting seeds which forms a small furrow, deposits the seed in dribbles, covers the seed, and packs soil over it. It can also deposit fertilizer, lime, or other amendments into the soil, alone or with the seed.

drip irrigation
A method used to place irrigation water near plants' roots through pipes or tubes. This reduces water evaporation and runoff, but may not be cost effective for all crops.

dry cow
A cow that is not lactating.

dry period
A rest period between lactations when a cow is not lactating, normally 60 days in duration.

dryland farming
Farming on non-irrigated land. Success is based on rainfall, moisture-conserving tillage, and drought-resistant crops.

entomology
The study of insects and their environments.

ephemeral stream
A stream that flows only sporadically, such as after storms.

estrus
The recurrent, restricted period of sexual receptivity in livestock. Non-pregnant cows and heifers usually come in heat 18 to 21 days following their previous estrus.

evergreen tree
A tree that retains some or most of its leaves, or needles, throughout the year.

ewe
A female sheep of any age.

exotic species
A non-native plant or animal species introduced by humans, either deliberately or accidentally.

fallow
Cropland left idle during the growing season.

fed (or fat) cattle
Cattle that have been finished, usually in the feedlot, and are ready for slaughter.

feeder cattle
Cattle past the calf stage that have weight increased making them salable as feedlot replacements.

feedlot
A confinement facility where cattle are fed to produce beef for the commercial trade. May be under a roof or outdoors.

field corn
Any variety of corn that is grown extensively in large fields primarily for livestock feed, as contrasted with the horticultural varieties, such as sweet corn or popcorn. Most field corn is of the dent variety.

filly
A female horse less than three years old.

firebreak
An existing barrier, or one constructed before a fire occurs, from which all or most flammable materials have been removed.

fleece
The wool coat of a sheep.

foal
A young horse of either sex, less than one year old.

forage
Herbaceous plants or plant parts fed to domestic animals.

forbs
Green broadleaf weeds.

forestry
The science, art, and practice of managing and protecting tree and forest resources for human benefit.

fungicide
see 'pesticide'

futures contract
An agreement between two people one who sells and agrees to deliver, and one who buys and agrees to receive a certain kind, quality, and quantity of products to be delivered during a specified delivery month at a specified price.

gelding
A castrated male horse.

gilt
Sexually mature female hog, prior to having her first litter.

green manure
A crop planted with the intention of turning it under for use as organic matter.

groundwater
Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs.

hardwood
A term describing broadleaf trees, usually deciduous, such as oaks, maples, cottonwood, ashes, and elms.

heifer
A young female bovine.

herbicide
see 'pesticide'

home range
The area within which the activities of an animal are confined. The boundaries may be marked, such as by scent marking, and also may be defended, depending on the species.

homogenization
The process of physically reducing the particle size of fat in milk, thus enabling even distribution of fat throughout the milk.

insecticide
see 'pesticide'

integrated pest management (IPM)
Using the best features of chemical, biological, and cultural controls in an overall pest control program.

lactation
The time between calving that a cow produces milk, usually 10 months.

lamb
A young sheep, less than one year old.

land-grant universities
State colleges and universities started from federal government grants of land to each state to encourage further practical education in agriculture, home economics, and the mechanical arts.

legume
A family of plants, including many valuable food and forage species, such as peas, beans, soybeans, peanuts, clovers, and alfalfas. They can convert nitrogen from the air to build up nitrogen in the soil.

mastitis
An infection and inflammation of the udder in cows.

Mid America Dairymen
A farmer-owned milk cooperative that purchases milk from New Mexico dairy producers. Headquarters in Missouri.

milking parlor
A facility that functions to extract milk from a cow by means of vacuum.

milo
A small drought-resistant grain sorghum with compact bearded heads of large yellow or whitish seeds.

mutton
Meat from sheep that are over one year old.

nematicide
see 'pesticide'

net farm income
The money and non-money income form operators realize from farming as a return for labor, investment, and management after production expenses have been paid. Net farm income is measure in two ways net farm income before inventory adjustment and net farm income after inventory adjustment. Net farm income doesn't include changes in the value of inventories such as crops and livestock at the end of the year.

oil seed crops
Primarily soybeans, peanuts, cottonseed, and flaxseed used for the production of oils for cooking, protein meals, and nonfood uses. Less common oil crops include sunflower, safflower, castor beans, and sesame.

open
A term commonly used to refer to a non-pregnant female.

pasteurization
the process of heating milk to kill pathogens that may be harmful to humans.

pasture
A fenced area of forage, usually improved, on which animals are grazed.

perennial
A plant that lives for more than two years.

permanent pasture
Pasture of perennial or self-seeding annual plants maintained through several years of grazing.

pesticide
Used to destroy pests. Fungicides (destroys fungus), herbicides (destroys plants), insecticides (destroys insects), and nematicides (destroys nematodes) are all pesticides.

Photosynthesis
The process plants use to change air and water into food, using the sun's energy.

polled
Naturally hornless cattle; having no horns.

Posilac
Trade name for rBST marketed by Protiva, a unit of Monsanto.

power-take-off
A powered shaft, usually extending from the rear of the tractor and driven by the tractor motor, to supply rotative power to an attached or trailing implement such as a combine, hay baler, mower, etc.

Progeny
The offspring of animals.

protein supplement
A feed containing protein, vitamins, and minerals which is fed to livestock to provide a complete diet.

ram (or buck)
A male sheep of any age.

rangeland
A large open land area on which livestock wander and graze. The native vegetation is mainly grasses, forbs, and shrubs.

rBST
Recombinant BST, produced by genetically modified bacteria. Increases milk yield of dairy cows when administered properly.

riparian
Pertaining to the area along the banks of a river, stream, or lake.