Copy of `New York Times - Business and Finance Glossary`

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New York Times - Business and Finance Glossary
Category: Economy and Finance
Date & country: 11/09/2007, USA
Words: 2691


Call provision
An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior to maturity.

Call risk
The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.

Call swaption
A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.

Callable
A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to call the security.

Canadian agencies
Agency banks established by Canadian banks in the U.S.

Cap
An upper limit on the interest rate on a floating-rate note.

Capital
Money invested in a firm.

Capital account
Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.

Capital allocation decision
Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium.

Capital budget
A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.

Capital budgeting
The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.

Capital expenditures
Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as property, plant or equipment.

Capital flight
The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.

Capital gain
When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.

Capital gains yield
The price change portion of a stock's return.

Capital lease
A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.

Capital loss
The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.

Capital market
The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).

Capital market efficiency
Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.

Capital market imperfections view
The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.

Capital market line (CML)
The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.

Capital rationing
Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital budget.

Capital structure
The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.

Capital surplus
Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.

Capitalization
The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.

Capitalization method
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.

Capitalization ratios
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.

Capitalization table
A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization ratios.

Capitalized
Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures for items with useful lives greater than one year.

Capitalized interest
Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then amortized through the income statement over time.

Car
A loose quantity term sometimes used to describe a the amount of a commodity underlying one commodity contract; e.g., 'a car of bellies.' Derived from the fact that quantities of the product specified in a contract used to correspond closely to the capacity of a railroad car.

CARDs
Certificates of Amortized Revolving Debt. Pass-through securities backed by credit card receivables.

Carring costs
Costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.

Carry
Related:net financing cost.

Carrying value
Book value.

CARs
Certificates of Automobile Receivables. Pass-through securities backed by automobile receivables.

Cash
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

Cash and carry
Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed with a loan or repo.

Cash and equivalents
The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. Cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

Cash budget
A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its expected cash and loan balances.

Cash commodity
The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

Cash conversion cycle
The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash from accounts receivable.

Cash cow
A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

Cash cycle
In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

Cash deficiency agreement
An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash deficiency the project may experience.

Cash delivery
The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

Cash discount
An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time period, such as ten days.

Cash dividend
A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in addition to the dividend.

Cash equivalent
A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial equivalent of cash.

Cash flow
In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges. Sometimes called cash earnings. Cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.

Cash flow after interest and taxes
Net income plus depreciation.

Cash flow coverage ratio
The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments, preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental payments, and depreciation.

Cash flow from operations
A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations (disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net income.

Cash flow matching
Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the last liability to assure all required cash flows.

Cash flow per common share
Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the number of common shares outstanding.

Cash flow time-line
Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

Cash management bill
Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

Cash markets
Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security or instrument. Related: derivative markets.

Cash offer
A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.

Cash ratio
The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

Cash settlement contracts
Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving the delivery of the underlying.

Cash transaction
A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

Cash-equivalent items
Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

Cash-flow break-even point
The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

Cash-surrender value
An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life insurance policy.

Cashout
Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

CBOE
Chicago Board Options Exchange. A securities exchange created in the early 1970s for the public trading of standardized option contracts.

CEDEL
A centralized clearing system for eurobonds.

Certainty equivalent
An amount that would be accepted in lieu of a chance at a possible higher, but uncertain, amount.

Certificate of deposit (CD)
Also called a time deposit, this is a certificate issued by a bank or thrift that indicates a specified sum of money has been deposited. A CD bears a maturity date and a specified interest rate, and can be issued in any denomination. The duration can be up to five years.

CFAT
Cash flow after taxes.

CFTC
The Commodity Futures Trading Commission is the federal agency created by Congress to regulate futures trading. The Commodity Exchange Act of 1974 became effective April 21, 1975. Previously, futures trading had been regulated by the Commodity Exchange Authority of the USDA.

Changes in Financial Position
Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures.

Characteristic line
The market model applied to a single security. The slope of the line is a security's beta.

Chartists
Related: technical analysts.

Cheapest to deliver issue
The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information, maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.

Chinese wall
Communication barrier between financiers (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.

Churning
Excessive trading of a client's / account in order to increase the broker's commissions.

Circle
Underwriters, actual or potential, often seek out and 'circle' investor interest in a new issue before final pricing. The customer circled basically made a commitment to purchase the issue if it comes at an agreed-upon price. In the latter case, if the price is other than that stipulated, the customer supposedly has first offer at the actual price.

Circus swap
A fixed rate currency swap against floating U.S. dollar LIBOR payments.

Claim dilution
A reduction in the likelihood one or more of the firm's claimants will be fully repaid, including time value of money considerations.

Claimant
A party to an explicit or implicit contract.

Clean opinion
An auditor's opinion reflecting an unqualified acceptance of a company's financial statements.

Clean price
Bond price excluding accrued interest.

Clear
A trade is carried out by the seller delivering securities and the buyer delivering funds in proper form. A trade that does not clear is said to fail.

Clear a position
To eliminate a long or short position, leaving no ownership or obligation.

Clearing member
A member firm of a clearing house. Each clearing member must also be a member of the exchange. Not all members of the exchange, however, are members of the clearing organization. All trades of a non-clearing member must be registered with, and eventually settled through, a clearing member.

Clearinghouse
An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed its floor are settled by a process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.

Clientele effect
The grouping of investors who have a preference that the firm follow a particular financing policy, such as the amount of leverage it uses.

Close, the
The period at the end of the trading session. Sometimes used to refer to closing price. Related: Opening, the.

Closed-end fund
An investment company that sells shares like any other corporation and usually does not redeem its shares. A publicly traded fund sold on stock exchanges or over the counter that may trade above or below its net asset value. Related: Open-end fund.

Closed-end mortgage
Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.

Closing purchase
A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in a stock, or in a given series of options.

Closing range
Also known as the range. The high and low prices, or bids and offers, recorded during the period designated as the official close. Related: settlement price.

Closing sale
A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock, or a given series of options.

Cluster analysis
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated between clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable and energy stocks.

Coefficient of determination
A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return.

Coinsurance effect
Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on either firm's debt.