Copy of `US Rare Coin The Numismatics Glossary`

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US Rare Coin The Numismatics Glossary
Category: Sport and Leisure > Coin Collecting
Date & country: 11/09/2007, USA
Words: 268


privy mark
Small device used on coinage often commemorative in nature, similar to Mint mark in placement, but not indicative of Mint of origin.

Proof
A coin struck on specially-prepared planchets on special presses to receive the highest quality strike possible, especially for collectors. For paper money, a print made to test the plate, analogous to a die trial strike in coinage.

Proof set
A set of one Proof coin of each current denomination issued by a recognized Mint for a specific year.

prooflike
An Uncirculated coin having received special minting treatment and a mirror surface for the benefit of collectors, with minor imperfections due to the minting process permissible.

quarter eagle
A gold $2.50 coin of the United States.

rare
A comparative term denoting a high degree of scarcity. Often modified adverbially, e.g., very rare or extremely rare; or modified by the use of figures, e.g., R4 or R7. There is no universally accepted scale of rarity.

Red Book
Nickname given to A Guide Book of United States Coins, an annually published price guide. The cover is red, hence the nickname. Gives retail prices, or what dealers might charge for U.S. coins.

reeded edge
The result of a minting process which creates vertical serrations on the edge of a coin.

relief
Raised. In coinage and medallic numismatic items, a relief design is raised above the surface of the field. Sometimes called bas--relief. Opposite of incuse and intaglio.

replica
A copy of the original, a facsimile. A reproduction.

restrike
A numismatic item produced from original dies at a later date; in the case of a coin usually not with a view to meeting monetary requirements but to fill a demand for a numismatic rarity.

reverse
The side opposite to that on which the head or principal figure is impressed. The side opposite from the obverse. On paper money this is called the back.

rim
Raised border around the circumference of a coin, not to be confused with the edge.

scarce
Not common, but not as uncommon as rare.

screw press
Early hand-operated machine for striking coins.

scrip
Paper currency usually of denominations less than $1 issued as substitutes for currency to private persons or organizations. Tokens issued by coal mines and sutlers also are called scrip.

scripophily
The study and science of collecting financial documents, including stock certificates, shares, government and private bonds, and checks. A student of scripophily is a scripophilist.

seal
A device placed on paper money indicating authority of issue. Modern Federal Reserve notes have two seals, a green Department of Treasury seal and a black Fed seal.

seigniorage
The profits resulting from the difference between the cost to make a coin and its face value, or its worth as money and legal tender. Most coins cost less to make than their face value; when it becomes too expensive to make a certain coin, size, weight and composition are often changed.

serial number
Number used chiefly on paper money and sometimes on limited-issue medals to indicate order of production.

series
Related coinage of the same denomination, design and type, including modifications, or varieties, of design. The Lincoln/Wheat Ears cents of 1909 to 1958 represent a complete series.

sestertius
An ancient Roman coin; plural, sestertii.

shekel, sheqel
Shekel is a silver coin of ancient Judea of various weights; sheqel is modern Israeli denomination, plural 'sheqalim.'

silver certificate
Authorized by the Acts of Feb. 28, 1878, and Aug. 4, 1886. Were redeemable in silver coin, and in early to mid-1960s, silver bullion. No longer produced, but all specimens remain legal tender although the notes can no longer be redeemed in silver.

slab
Popular nickname for certain kinds of protective coin encapsulation methods, especially those that are permanently sealed and rectangular.

slug
A term applied to the $50 gold coin issued by various private Mints in California from 1851 to 1855 occurring in both round and octagonal shapes, or to tokens manufactured expressly for use in certain coin-operated machines.

small date
A variety of coin on which the date is physically smaller than other varieties of the same year. Similar varieties include medium date and large date.

so-called dollar
A silver dollar-sized medal commemorating a special event.

souvenir card
Popular collectible item, usually well-printed on heavy paper using an engraving used on paper money. They also contain information of a historical or commemorative nature.

Souvenir Mint sets
An issue of the U.S. Mint, containing the coinage of one Mint. It is generally sold only at the Mint represented by the coins.

Special Mint sets (SMS)
Coins produced under special conditions by the United States Mint at San Francisco during the years 1965, 1966 and 1967. Coins have no Mint marks.

specie
In the form of coin, especially precious metal coin; paper money redeemable in coin. From Latin meaning 'in kind.'

star notes
Mainly intended as replacements for notes that were damaged or produced with errors or mistakes at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. On modern Federal Reserve notes, a solid star appears at the end of the serial number; on earlier notes, the star appears at the beginning of the number. Until the 1980s, star notes were also used to represent the 100 millionth note since the serial numbering machinery has only eight digits.

state coinages or notes
Refers to coins issued by one of four state governments (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey and Vermont) between the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the U.S. Constitution when the states' rights to issue coins were suspended. Among paper money, refers to notes issued between Declaration of Independence and Civil War by state governments.

stater
Greek coin equal to two drachms or didrachm, or 12 obols.

Stella
A gold $4 pattern never issued for circulation. Also struck in other metals.

sterling silver
Silver that is .925 fine; in Israel, .935 fine silver. From the British standard 'pound sterling.'

store card
A token bearing a business name and/or address, and often intended as a local or adhoc medium of exchange as well as an advertisement for the issuer.

strike
The act of impressing the image of a die into a planchet, making a coin. The quality of strike is important when determining the amount of wear on a coin.

strip
Rolls of coinage metal to be punched into planchets.

surcharge
An extra charge placed on an item, the revenue of which is usually earmarked for a specific fund. It has been the recent practice of the United States Congress to place a surcharge on commemorative coins, sometimes to benefit a worthy organization.

syngraphics
The study of printed currency and related items; from 'syngraph,' a writing signed by all parties to a contract or bond.

token
Usually a piece of durable material appropriately marked and unofficially issued for monetary, advertising, services or other purposes.

Trade dollar
A silver dollar coin produced for overseas markets. The United States issued a Trade dollar between 1873-85 for use in the Orient. Great Britain also issued a trade dollar. Also used incorrectly to refer to Canadian trade tokens of $1 nominal value.

Treasury note
Sometimes called a coin note. Issued under the Act of July 14, 1890. Redeemable in silver and gold coins.

tree coinage
Silver coins issued by the Massachusetts Colony in three forms: Willow Tree, Oak Tree and Pine Tree. Issued between 1652-82 although all but one are dated 1652.

Trends
A market value guide based on averages derived from auction results, dealer advertisements, price lists and other sources. Represents a guide, not firm buying or selling prices.

tribute penny
A silver denarius of the Roman emperor Tiberius.

trime
Unofficial nickname given to the silver 3-cent coin. Formed by combining 'tri' and the last two letters of 'dime.'

type set
A collection composed of one of each coin of a given series or period.

Uncirculated set
Set of coins issued by the U.S. Mint, consisting of one of each coin issued for circulated. Also called Uncirculated Mint set, orunofficially, a Mint set.

uncut sheet
Refers to the 32-note (or 32-subject) sheets of Federal Reserve notes being sold by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The 16-note and four-note sheets being sold are cut partial sheets, although they are often referred to as uncut sheets. Earlier sheets of U.S. paper money came with different numbers of notes.

uniface
Having a design on one side only.

unique
Extant in only one known specimen. Very often misused, as in 'semi-unique.'

United States note
A specific type of note first authorized in 1862 and called legal tender notes; name officially changed to United States notes in July 1873. By law, $346,681,016 in United States notes must be kept in circulation. The term United States note is not a generic term for all forms of U.S. paper money.

upsetting mill
A machine that squeezes planchets so that they have a raised rim, in preparation for striking.

vectures
Transportation tokens.

vecturist
A collector who specializes in transportation tokens.

vignette
A pictorial element of a bank note design that shades off gradually into the surrounding unprinted paper or background rather than having sharp outlines or a frame.

want list
A list given by a collector to a dealer listing items the collector needs for a collection. The dealer keeps the want list and attempts to purchase items listed on it for the collector.

watermark
Design formed by differing thickness of paper during production; often used as security device in paper money.

whizzing
The severe polishing of a coin in an attempt to improve its appearance and salability to the uninformed. A form of alteration regarded as misleading by the numismatic community, and which actually lowers the value of the coin.

widow's mite
An ancient Jewish lepton denomination coin of the time of Christ.

wire rim
Slight flange on coins or medals caused by heavy striking pressure, often characteristic on Proof coins. The metal is squeezed up the side of the die faces by the collar die. Sometimes incorrectly called wire edge.

wooden nickels
Originally, substitute for coins first used in the 1931-35 depression, having originated in Tenino, Wash. Issued in round or rectangular form and in many denominations. Currently used for advertising and souvenir purposes.

working die
A metal punch that is used to impress images into coins; wrong-reading.

working hub
A metal punch used to produce 'working dies'; right-reading.

year set
A set of coins for any given year, generally containing one specimen of each coin from each Mint issued for circulation, and packaged privately, not by the government.